Chemistry 3A Spring 2009 Midterm 2 Outline

Chemistry 3A Spring 2009 Midterm 2 Outline - Chemistry 3A...

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Chemistry 3A Spring 2009 Midterm 2 Outline I. Stereochemistry a. Resolution of Enantiomers i. Transformation of enantiomers into diastereomers and manually separating them ii. Chiral column chromatography iii. Enzymatic resolution II. Haloalkanes a. “Alkyl halides” b. R – X i. Electrophilic carbon ii. Boiling points are higher than those of similar alkanes because of polarizability of the halogen 1. EXCEPT FOR FLUROALKANES WHICH ARE NOT AS POLARIZABLE iii. Density 1. Higher densities than corresponding alkanes 2. Strongest bond with F > I iv. CFCs 1. Banned by Montreal Protocol (1987) in 1996 2. CCl3F (F reon-11) or CCl2F2 (Freon-12) 3. Destroyed ozone by reacting and forming oxygen c. Reactions of haloalkanes i. Formation of organometallic compounds 1. Grignard Reagents a. Victor Grignard (Nobel prize 1912) b. Used to make C – C bonds or to make the molecule bigger c. Use Magnesium in ether or THF solvent to the haloalkane d. STRONG BASES THAT REACT WITH ACIDS FIRST
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e. Cannot be made in the presence of an acidic H+ f.
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