HUN - Study Guide Questions Test 1 HUN 4446 Fall 2009...

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Study Guide Questions – Test 1 HUN 4446 – Fall 2009 Nutrition and Genetics/Genomics Define terms: genotype, phenotype, epigenetics, allele, DNA methylation, uracil misincorporation, single nucleotide polymorphism, heterozygous, homozygous (normal; variant), etc. Genotype: internally oded, inheritable information carried by all living organisms; used as a “blueprint” or set of instructions for building and maintaining a living creature Phenotype: outward, physical manifestations of the organism; these are the physical parts, the sum of the atoms, molecules, macromolecules, cells, structures, metabolism, etc.; anything that is part of the observable structure, function or behavior Epigenetics: changes in phenotype (appearance) or gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence Allele: alternative form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome DNA Methylation: type of chemical modification of DNA that are stable over rounds of cell division but do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism Uracil Misincoporation: Single Nucleotide Ploymorphism: a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide in the genome differs between members of a species Heterozygous: 2 different alleles occupy the gene's position on the homologous chromosomes Homozygous: identical alleles of the gene are present on both homologous chromosomes Normal: Variant: Demonstrate an understanding of genetics concepts and nomenclature (i.e., SNP, genotype, phenotype, epigenetic, nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics/nutritional genomics, methylation, uracil misincorporation, heterozygous, homozygous, etc.) by correctly applying these terms and concepts to answer questions about situations described in case scenarios or other situations posed in the questions. Nutrigenetics: Identification and characterization of gene variants associated with altered responses to dietary components that are related to variations in diet-related disease risk Nutrigenomics: the influence of dietary components on the genome; relates phenotype to differences in cellular and or genetic responses following a nutritional stimulus Nutritional Genomics: The “New” Genetics entire human genome interacting with internal and external environment encompasses: Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics Projected Outcome: Nutrient/food based dietary guidelines for disease prevention/healthful aging based on genome Individualized MNT for disease management Targeted public health nutrition interventions What is the significance of the MTHFR 677C→T single nucleotide polymorphism in terms of chronic
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HUN - Study Guide Questions Test 1 HUN 4446 Fall 2009...

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