TYPES OF STATISTICAL APPLICATIONS
Descriptive statistics
are the tabular, graphical, and numerical methods used to
summarize data.
o
Elements of Descriptive Statistical Problems
population/sample of interest
investigative variables
numerical summary tools (charts, graphs, tables)
pattern identification in data
Statistical inference
is the process of using data obtained from a small group of
elements (the sample
) to make estimates and test hypotheses about the characteristics of a
larger group of elements (the population
).
Elements of Inferential Statistical Problems
population of interest
investigative variables
sample taken from population
inference about population based on sample data
reliability measure for the inference
Data can be classified as being categorical or quantitative.
The statistical analysis that is appropriate depends on whether the data for the variable
are categorical or quantitative.
In general, there are more alternatives for statistical analysis when the data are
quantitative.
Quantitative Data
indicate either how many or how much
measured on a naturally occurring scale
quantitative data are always numeric
ordinary arithmetic operations are meaningful only with quantitative data

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