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chapter1geo - Matthew Purosky Chapter 1 Study Guide GEO 200...

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Matthew Purosky August 30, 2008 Chapter 1 Study Guide – GEO 200 Definitions: Antarctic Circle – the southern polar circle, at 66.5º S latitude (p. 18) aphelion – when the Earth is at its farthest from the Sun, at about 152,171,500 km on around July 4 (p. 17) Arctic Circle - the northern polar circle, at 66.5º N latitude (p. 18) atmosphere – the gaseous envelope of air that surrounds Earth (p. 5) biosphere – all the parts of the Earth where living organisms can exist (p. 5) circle of illumination – the dividing line between the daylight half of Earth and nighttime half of Earth (p. 18) cryosphere – a subcomponent of the hydrosphere – water frozen as snow and ice (p. 5) cultural geography – the study of the human and/or cultural events of geography (p. 1) December solstice – when the North Pole is tilted at its most away from the Sun (p. 19) equator – the parallel of 0º latitude (p. 10) graticule – the grid system of Earth (p. 11) great circle – the intersection of Earth's surface with any plane that passes through Earth's center (p. 10) Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) – time in the Greenwich Time Zone (p. 23) hydrosphere – water in all its forms (p. 5) inclination of Earth's axis – the tilt of the Earth to about 23.5º (p. 17) International Date Line – the line marking a time difference of an entire day from one side of the line to the other (p. 24) international system of measurement (SI) – the metric system (p. 4) June solstice – when the North Pole is tilted the most directly toward the Sun (usually June 21) (p. 18) latitude – a description of location expressed as an angle north or south of the equator (p. 11) lithosphere – the solid, inorganic portion of Earth (p. 5)
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longitude – an angular description of east-west location (p. 13) March equinox – when both sides of the Earth get equal day and night, around March 20 (p. 21) meridian – line of longitude (p. 13) North Pole – 90º N latitude (p. 11) parallel – a line connecting all points of the same latitude (p. 11) perihelion – when the Earth is at its closest from the Sun, at about 147,166,480 km on around January 3 (p. 17) physical geography – study of the physical or environmental aspects of geometry (p. 1) plane of the ecliptic – the imaginary plane defined by the orbital path of Earth around the Sun (p. 17) plane of the equator – the imaginary plane that passes through Earth perpendicular to its axis (p. 10) polarity (parallelism) of the rotation axis – when Earth's axis always points toward Polaris (p. 18)
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