Chapter 4 - GEO 200

Chapter 4 - GEO 200 - Matthew Purosky 9-24-2009 GEO-200...

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Matthew Purosky 9-24-2009 GEO-200 Chapter 4 Study Guide absorption (p. 81) – the ability of an object to assimilate energy from electromagnetic waves that strike it adiabatic cooling (p. 85) – cooling by expansion, such as in rising air adiabatic warming (p. 86) – warming by compression, such as in descending air advection (p. 85) – horizontal movement of air across the Earth’s surface albedo (p. 87) – The reflectivity of a surface. The fraction of total solar radiation that is reflected back, unchanged, into space angle of incidence (p. 89) – the angle at which the Sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface average annual temperature range (p. 102) – difference in temperature between the average temperature of the hottest and coldest months for a location average lapse rate (p. 98) – the average rate of temperature decrease with height in the troposphere – about 6.5ºC per 1000 meters (3.6ºF per 1000 feet) condensation (p. 86) – process by which water vapor is converted to liquid water; a warming process because latent heat is released conduction (p. 84) – the movement of energy from one molecule to another without changing the relative positions of the molecules. In enables the transfer of heat between different parts of a stationary body convection (p. 85) – vertical movements of parcels of air due to density differences convection cell (p. 85) – closed pattern of convective circulation electromagnetic radiation (p. 78) – flow of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves; radiant energy electromagnetic spectrum (p. 79) – electromagnetic radiation, arranged according to wavelength energy (p. 75) – the capacity to do work environmental lapse rate (p. 98) – the observed vertical temperature gradient of the troposphere evaporation (p. 86) – process by which liquid water is converted to gaseous water vapor; a cooling process because latent heat is stored global warming (p. 102) – popular name given to the recent warming of Earth’s climate due to human released greenhouse gases
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greenhouse effect (p. 83) – the warming in the lower troposphere because of differential transmissivity for shortwave and longwave radiation through the gases in the atmosphere; the atmosphere easily transmits shortwave radiation from the Sun but inhibits the transmission of longwave radiation from the surface greenhouse gases (p. 83) – gases with the ability to transmit incoming shortwave radiation from the Sun but absorb outgoing terrestrial radiation. The most important greenhouse gases are water vapor and carbon dioxide. heat (p. 76) – Energy that transfers from one object or substance to another because of a difference in
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This note was uploaded on 10/26/2009 for the course GEO 220 taught by Professor Brucefye during the Spring '09 term at Northern Virginia.

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Chapter 4 - GEO 200 - Matthew Purosky 9-24-2009 GEO-200...

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