Chapter 6 - GEO 200

Chapter 6 - GEO 200 - Matthew Purosky GEO 200 Chapter 6...

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Matthew Purosky 10-13-2009 GEO 200 Chapter 6 Study Guide The Nature of Water: Commonplace but Unique The Water Molecule atoms – the fundamental building blocks of matter (p. 142) subatomic particles – the fundamental building blocks of matter (p. 142) protons – positively charged subatomic particles (p. 142) neutrons – neutrally charged subatomic particles (p. 142) nucleus – where the neutrons are located in an atom (p. 142) electrons – negatively charged subatomic particles (p. 142) molecule – the result of the bonding of two or more atoms (p. 142) covalent bonds – a bond in which atoms share electrons (p. 142) electrical polarity – when two sides of a molecule have different kinds of charges (p. 142) 1. What is a hydrogen bond between water molecules? hydrogen bond – a bond that forms when the negatively charged side of a molecule is next to the positively charged side (p. 142) cohesion – when molecules of the same substance stick together (p. 142) Properties of Water 2. Describe what happens to the density of water as it freezes. 2.- It contracts until it reaches 4 deg. Celcius and expands from then on. 3. What is meant by surface tension of water? surface tension – when liquid molecules stick together (p. 143) capillarity – an action that enables water to circulate upward through rock cracks, soil, and the roots of stems and plants (p. 143) specific heat (specific heat capacity) – the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celcius (p. 143) Phase Changes of Water
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evaporation – conversion of liquid to gas (p. 143-144) condensation – conversion of gas to liquid (p. 144) sublimation – conversion of gas to ice (p. 144) Latent Heat calorie – the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1?C (p. 144) 4. How do phase changes of water entail the exchange of heat? (In other words, explain latent heat ) - Heat is added or released to change the phase. (p. 144) latent heat of melting – the energy required to melt ice (p. 144) latent heat of fusion – the energy released as water freezes (p. 144) latent heat of vaporization – the energy required to vaporize liquid (p. 144) latent heat of condensation – the energy released during condensation (p. 144) boiling – an action that occurs when vaporization takes place beneath the surface of the liquid water (not just at the surface) (p. 145) 5. Why is evaporation a “cooling” process? Why is condensation a “warming” process? - Due to the expulsion and absorption of latent heat. (p. 145) latent heat of evaporation – the energy required for evaporation (540-600 calories) (p. 145) Importance of Latent Heat in the Atmosphere evaporative cooling – the cooling process of evaporation (p. 145) Water Vapor and the Hydrologic Cycle The Hydrologic Cycle hydrologic cycle – the continuous interchange of moisture between Earth and its atmosphere (p. 146) Evaporation net evaporation – the rate of evaporation from a water surface (p. 146)
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Chapter 6 - GEO 200 - Matthew Purosky GEO 200 Chapter 6...

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