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Geol111_Mineralogy_2007 - Minerals Earth Materials Minerals...

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Minerals & Earth Materials
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By definition a mineral is Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical composition Rock A solid aggregate of minerals Minerals: Building blocks of rocks
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Apatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH, Cl,F) - hexagonal structure -prismatic habit - major component teeth
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Elements Basic building blocks of minerals > 100 are known (92 naturally occurring) Atoms Smallest particles of matter Retains all the characteristics of an element Composition of minerals
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Crustal Abundances of the Elements
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Atomic structure Central region called the nucleus Consists of protons (+ charges) and neutrons (- charges) Electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus Located in discrete energy levels called shells Composition of minerals
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Structure of an atom
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Figure 3.4
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Figure 3.6
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Chemical bonding Formation of a compound by combining two or more elements Ionic bonding Atoms gain or lose outermost ( valence ) electrons to form ions Ionic compounds consist of an orderly arrangement of oppositely charged ions Composition of minerals
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Halite (NaCl) – An example of ionic bonding
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Covalent bonding Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality Generally stronger than ionic bonds Both ionic and covalent bonds typically occur in the same compound Composition of minerals
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Covalent bond Model - diamond (Carbon)
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Polymorphs Minerals with the same composition but
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