Geol111_Mineralogy_2007

Geol111_Mineralogy_2 - Minerals& Earth Materials By definition a mineral is Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular

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Unformatted text preview: Minerals & Earth Materials By definition a mineral is Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical composition Rock A solid aggregate of minerals Minerals: Building blocks of rocks Apatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH, Cl,F)- hexagonal structure -prismatic habit- major component teeth Elements Basic building blocks of minerals > 100 are known (92 naturally occurring) Atoms Smallest particles of matter Retains all the characteristics of an element Composition of minerals Crustal Abundances of the Elements Atomic structure Central region called the nucleus Consists of protons (+ charges) and neutrons (- charges) Electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus Located in discrete energy levels called shells Composition of minerals Structure of an atom Figure 3.4 Figure 3.6 Chemical bonding Formation of a compound by combining two or more elements Ionic bonding Atoms gain or lose outermost ( valence ) electrons to form ions Ionic compounds consist of an orderly arrangement of oppositely charged ions Composition of minerals Halite (NaCl) – An example of ionic bonding Covalent bonding Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality Generally stronger than ionic bonds Both ionic and covalent bonds typically occur in the same compound Composition of minerals Covalent bond Model- diamond (Carbon)...
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This note was uploaded on 10/26/2009 for the course GLY 123 taught by Professor Vogl during the Spring '09 term at University of Florida.

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Geol111_Mineralogy_2 - Minerals& Earth Materials By definition a mineral is Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular

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