Question # 63
Bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are characterized by several maladaptive beliefs, cognitions,
and attitudes. Describe some of these that the two disorders share in common, and some that are
unique to each (not shared).
Student # 1 Response:
Some common cognitions between sufferers of Anorexia and Bulimia are that they are overweight, that they
fear gaining weight, that their bodies are inadequate as they currently are, and that they fear losing control of
their eating habits.
Where the two disorders differ cognitively, is that people with Anorexia have a sense of pride in their self-
control, and view their resistance to hunger urges as an accomplishment. Bulimics on the other hand, do not
share a sense of mastery or pride about their eating habits, but rather feel shame and guilt over their cycle of
binging and purging.
Student # 2 Response:
Bulimia and anorexia both include an intense desire to be thin. Patients with either eating disorder connect their
weight and shape with their sense of self-worth - their appearance is their most important factor in determining
their self-esteem. They ignore or minimize their other accomplishments and virtues. They often believe that
being "thin enough" will make them happy and solve their interpersonal problems. They tend to "buy into"
societal and media messages about the glory and power of the "ideal" body shape more than the average
person. They believe themselves to be overweight or fat, regardless of their actual appearance.
People suffering from anorexia are proud of their strong willpower and self-control, but are still not satisfied with
their weight loss, no matter how underweight or close to death they may be. People suffering from bulimia may
feel relief after purging, and may feel they have eliminated the food they have eaten, when in reality they have
already digested at least 50% of the food. Those with bulimia are typically normal weight, and they are deeply
ashamed of their binging and purging behavior. They often feel worthless, and they feel that because they hide
their eating behavior, they are "fakes." This can cause further isolation, and further self-harm. Those who binge
feel that their behavior is not within their control, but this can be changed with therapy.
Question # 64
Describe the etiological model that has been proposed to explain the development of paraphilias.
Student # 1 Response:
An integrative approach is taken with respect to the etiology of paraphiilias. Biologically, an unusually strong
sex drive coupled with inadequately developed physical arousal patterns to appropriate sex patterns have been
implicated. Socially and Psychologically, persons with paraphilias may also have underdeveloped social skills,
thereby hampering their ability to relate (sexually and socially) to appropriate sex partners. In addition, early