Bio Unit 1 Objectives

Bio Unit 1 Objectives - BioG 1105 Unit 1 Objectives 1(a see...

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BioG 1105 Unit 1 Objectives 1.) (a) see drawing (b) H - 1; O - 2; N - 3; C - 4; P - 3; S - 2 2.) (a) Electronegativity is greatly influenced by (1) the number of electrons in an atom’s valence shell and (2) how far away that valence shell is from the nuc- leus of the atom (b) Atoms that are smaller (stronger tendency to attract electrons) and that have fewer vacancies left on the valance shell tend to be highly electronegative, resulting in a polar bond. 3.) (a) A covalent bond is when one atom shares an electron with another atom in order for both atoms to complete their valence shell/become stable. Ionic bonds differ. An anion (negatively charged ie Cl - )donates an electron to a cation (positively charged ie Na + ) so that both can become neutral. (b) Polar covalent bonds result when one atom is sharing electrons with another atom, but the electronegativity is unequally balanced, such is the case with hydrogen and oxygen in a water molecule. Non-polar covalent bonds occur when two atoms sharing electrons happen to have the same electronegativity or the electronegativity is so insignificant that it doesn’t make a difference. Po- lar bonds differ from ionic bonds in that ions donate or accept an electron in order to form a bond; atoms in a polar covalent bond must share the electrons in order to complete their valence shells. (c) O and N (d) C, H, N and O form covalent bonds; Cl, F and Na form ionic bonds. Polar co- valent, non-polar covalent and ionic bonds are all strong bonds. Bonds C forms with: 1.) O - polar covalent 2.) N - polar covalent 3.) H - non-polar covalent 4.) Other Cs - non-polar covalent Strength: 1.) Polar covalent 2.) Non-polar covalent 3.) Ionic (e) done in head (f) The hybridization of the s and p orbitals give molecules a tetrahedral shape. Molecules have a certain shape so that they can be recognized by other mo-
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2009 for the course BIO G 105 at Cornell.

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Bio Unit 1 Objectives - BioG 1105 Unit 1 Objectives 1(a see...

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