Bio Unit 2 Objectives

Bio Unit 2 Objectives - BioG 1105 Unit 2 Objectives 1(A...

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BioG 1105 Unit 2 Objectives 1.) (A) Hierarchy of the Living World - provides manageable levels of biological organiza- tion (a) Biosphere - all the environments on earth inhabited by life; most of the land masses, bodies of water and the atmosphere (b) Ecosystem - all the living things in a particular area (c) Community - all the organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem (d) Population - all the individuals of a species living together in a specified area (e) Organism - individual living things (f) Organ System - a group of organs that cooperate to perform a specific func- tion (g) Organ - a body part consisting of 2 or more tissues that carry out a particular body function (h) Tissue - a group of similar cells that work together (i) Cell - the basic unit of structure and function (j) Organelle - various functional makeup of cells (k) Molecule - chemical structure consisting of 2 or more atoms (B) Emergent properties - new properties that come up due to differing arrangement and interactions once a substance moves up a level of complexity (C) 1.) New properties emerge at each level of biological hierarchy 2.) Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy 3.) Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biology 4.) Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism 5.) The continuity of life is based upon heritable information in the form of DNA 6.) Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems 7.) The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life (D) The fact of evolution is seen through the historical documented facts: fossils, biogeography, etc. .. Mechanisms - the genetic makeup of the population changed over time (E) (1) The species of organisms living on earth today arose from a succession of an- cestors. Called descent with modification - the species is descended from common an- cestors; modification evolved as the species branched out from their ancestors. (2) Nat- ural selection is Darwin’s mechanism that accounts for such a change. Individuals in a population reproduce. Their traits are passed on to their offspring. A population can pro- duce more offspring than can survive to reproduce their own offspring. Competition is a given since there are more individuals than a population can hold. The individuals with traits that give them the best opportunity to survive in the given environment will survive; less fit individuals will not. Evolution occurs as the unequal reproductive success of indi- viduals adapts the population to the environment. It is called natural selection because the environment “selects” for the propagation of certain traits. 2.)
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(a) Prokaryotic - Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, no nucleus, DNA contained in nucleoid region (b) Eukaryotic - Plasma membrane, nucleus containing DNA, cytoplasm, organelles (c) The theory of endosymbiosis states that the ancestors of mitochondria and chloro- plasts were prokaryotes. These ancient prokaryotes which were aerobic invaded other
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Bio Unit 2 Objectives - BioG 1105 Unit 2 Objectives 1(A...

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