7. and 8. Nervous system and behavior

7. and 8. Nervous system and behavior - Generalized Neuron...

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Generalized Neuron
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Electric signal Chemical Signal
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Summarizing the way that action potentials and synapses work. Resting Potential
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Action Potential propagates down the axon
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What do we mean by “electric signal?” Neurons are basically sitting in sea water. High concentrations of sodium and chloride ions outside of the cell.
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An electric signal involves a shift in the concentration of ions.
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Voltage changes across the membrane in an action potential are what trigger an electric signal to propagate down the axon. Action Potentials are propagated like this: *
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*
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The mechanism of action of cocaine Cocaine modifies the action of dopamine in the brain. The dopamine rich areas of the brain are the ventral tegemental area, the nucleus accumbens and the caudate nucleus – these areas are collectively known as the brain’s ‘reward pathway’. Cocaine binds to dopamine re-uptake transporters on the pre-synaptic membranes of dopaminergic neurones. This binding inhibits the removal of dopamine from the synaptic cleft and its subsequent degradation by monoamine oxidase in the nerve terminal. Dopamine remains in the synaptic cleft and is free to bind to its receptors on the post synaptic membrane, producing further nerve impulses. This increased activation of the dopaminergic reward pathway leads to the feelings of euphoria and the ‘high’ associated with cocaine use.
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Habituation results in reduced reflex response
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Evolutionary trends in nervous systems. 1. Nervous systems become centralized with longitudinal nerve cords serving as the major highway along which nervous impulses travel. 2. Electrical currents begin to travel only in one direction, as opposed to nerve nets that have bidirectional travel of electrical impulses. 3. Nerve cells that serve different functions become segregated, so that functional groupings of neurons become clear. 4. The front end of the longitudinal nerve cord becomes dominant leading to the creation of a brain.
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FISH shark AMPHIBIAN frog REPTILE alligator BIRD goose olfactory lobe forebrain midbrain hindbrain Vertebrates show an enlargement of the forebrain
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reptile (alligator) bird (goose) olfactory lobe (part of forebrain) forebrain midbrain hindbrain fish (shark) amphibian (frog) mammal (horse) forebrain midbrain hindbrain olfactory lobe Stepped Art
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In most animals there is a brain that processes sensory information and stimulates the appropriate motor response.
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midbrain thalamus hypothalamus pons cerebellum medulla oblongata corpus callosum part of optic nerve pineal gland location The hypothalamus is a VERY important brain structure in behavior!
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The hippocampus and amygdala are also very important brain/behavior structures.
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The cortex of all mammals is 6 cell layers thick.
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Cortical neurons come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
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Generalized human cognitive map
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Phrenology doctrines: That moral and intellectual faculties are innate. That their exercise or manifestation
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7. and 8. Nervous system and behavior - Generalized Neuron...

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