lecture6feb508.ppt

lecture6feb508.ppt - air moves from east to west = easterly...

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General Atmospheric Circulation Some principles of motion Global scale Local scale
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Driving Forces Within the Atmosphere Gravity Pressure Gradient Force Coriolis Force Friction Force
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Density Mass / volume
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Pressure Profile Decreases with height
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Atmospheric Pressure Force exerted over some area F=ma the ‘weight’ of the atmosphere
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Air is Compressible Fluid Air closest to surface will be compressed Pushed into a given volume More mass in given volume closer to surface
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Ideal Gas Law Change in temperature or density changes pressure Density increases cold air high pressure Ideal Gas Law Pressure = Constant x Temperature x Density Density decreases warm air low pressure
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Measurement Barometer most common aneroid barometer Units millibars inches of mercury
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Wind Vector 2 properties direction magnitude
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Speed Cup anemometer Units length per time mph, ms, knots
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Direction Wind vane Units degrees from north
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Wind ALWAYS named for the direction it is coming FROM
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Unformatted text preview: air moves from east to west = easterly wind After Grossman-Clarke et al, 2005 J. Applied Meteorology CAP LTER & DCDC study 90 180 270 360 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Wind direction June 2007 Sky Harbor, Phx 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Series1 Wind speed June 2007 Sky Harbor, Phx Average Sea-level Pressure 1013.2mb 29.92 in. Hg US record low: 888 mb, Hurricane Gilbert 1988 US record high: 1065 mb Isobars Isolines of equal pressure Pressure Gradient Force (PGF) Difference between pressure over distance starts atmospheric motion determines wind speed Pressure Gradient Figure 6.7 Coriolis Effect Deflects to right in N hemisphere Deflects to left in S hemisphere PGF + Coriolis Effect Low pressure counterclockwise cyclonic High pressure clockwise anticyclonic H L L L H H H L L...
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lecture6feb508.ppt - air moves from east to west = easterly...

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