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Shale Sensitivity to fresh waterpete493LAB2 - Shale...

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Shale Sensitivity to Fresh Water Pete 493 Project #2 Date Conducted 10/08/09 Date Submitted 10/15/09 Objective To observe the effects of fresh water on Pierre One Shale Rock. Introduction Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals. Shale is characterized by thin laminae or parallel layering of bedding less than one centimeter in thickness. Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of breaking into thin layers, often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of parallel orientation of clay mineral flakes. The shale formation is usually too impermeable for hydrocarbon extraction, but produces in areas where it is naturally fractured. Many water-sensitive shale formations weaken when contacted by a drilling fluid. This can lead to hole sloughing, stuck pipe and balled down hole assemblies. Shale destabilization can also lead to a reduction in penetration rates.
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