Chapter5 - Chapter 5 Link Layer and LANs Chapter 5 The Data...

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1 5: DataLink Layer 5-1 Chapter 5 Link Layer and LANs All material copyright 1996-2007 J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved 5: DataLink Layer 5-2 Chapter 5: The Data Link Layer Our goals: understand principles behind data link layer services: error detection, correction sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access link layer addressing reliable data transfer, flow control: done! instantiation and implementation of various link layer technologies 5: DataLink Layer 5-3 Link Layer 5.1 Introduction and services 5.2 Error detection and correction 5.3Multiple access protocols 5.4 Link-layer Addressing 5.5 Ethernet 5.6 Link-layer switches 5: DataLink Layer 5-4 Link Layer: Introduction Some terminology: hosts and routers are nodes communication channels that connect adjacent nodes along communication path are links wired links wireless links LANs layer-2 packet is a frame , encapsulates datagram data-link layer has responsibility of transferring datagram from one node to adjacent node over a link 5: DataLink Layer 5-5 Link layer: context datagram transferred by different link protocols over different links: e.g., Ethernet on first link, frame relay on intermediate links, 802.11 on last link each link protocol provides different services e.g., may or may not provide rdt over link transportation analogy trip from Princeton to Lausanne limo: Princeton to JFK plane: JFK to Geneva train: Geneva to Lausanne tourist = datagram transport segment = communication link transportation mode = link layer protocol travel agent = routing algorithm 5: DataLink Layer 5-6 Link Layer Services framing, link access: encapsulate datagram into frame, adding header, trailer channel access if shared medium “MAC” addresses used in frame headers to identify source, dest different from IP address! reliable delivery between adjacent nodes we learned how to do this already (chapter 3)! seldom used on low bit-error link (fiber, some twisted pair) wireless links: high error rates Q: why both link-level and end-end reliability?
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2 5: DataLink Layer 5-7 Link Layer Services (more) flow control: pacing between adjacent sending and receiving nodes error detection : errors caused by signal attenuation, noise. receiver detects presence of errors: signals sender for retransmission or drops frame error correction: receiver identifies and corrects bit error(s) without resorting to retransmission half-duplex and full-duplex with half duplex, nodes at both ends of link can transmit, but not at same time 5: DataLink Layer 5-8 Link Layer 5.1 Introduction and services 5.2 Error detection and correction 5.3Multiple access protocols 5.4 Link-layer Addressing 5.5 Ethernet 5.6 Link-layer switches 5: DataLink Layer 5-9 Error Detection EDC= Error Detection and Correction bits (redundancy) D = Data protected by error checking, may include header fields • Error detection not 100% reliable!
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