globalNodesSelectionforWSN - I INTRODUCTION Global Node...

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Global Node Selection for Localization in a Distributed Sensor Network LANCE M. KAPLAN U.S. Army Research Laboratory This work considers the problem of selecting the best nodes for localizing (in the mean squared (MS) position error sense) a target in a distributed wireless sensor network. Each node consists of an array of sensors that are able to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) to a target. Different computationally efficient node selection approaches that use global network knowledge are introduced. Performance bounds based on the node/target geometry are derived, and these bounds help to determine the necessary communication reach of the active nodes. The resulting geolocation performance and energy usage, based on communication distance, is evaluated for a decentralized extended Kalman filter (EKF) that is exploiting the different selection approaches. Manuscript received March 1, 2004; revised October 12, 2004 and February 26, 2005; released for publication May 29, 2005. IEEE Log No. T-AES/42/1/870595. Refereeing of this contribution was handled by W. D. Blair. This work was prepared through collaborative participation in the Advanced Sensors and the Communications and Networks Collaborative Technology Alliances sponsored by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory under Cooperative Agreements DAAD19-01-2-008 and DAAD19-01-2-0011, respectively. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as presenting the official policies either express or implied of the Army Research Laboratory or the U.S. Government. Author’s address: ATTN: AMSRD-ARL-SE-SE, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783, E-mail: ([email protected]). 0018-9251/06/$17.00 c ° 2006 IEEE I. INTRODUCTION Future systems for surveillance and reconnaissance will rely on distributed wireless sensor networks of varying modalities in order to retain robustness in complex and nonstationary environments. Information about targets will be gathered by fusing sensor data from the different nodes in the network. Because of bandwidth and power limitations, raw sensor information should not be shared between the nodes. As a result, the general vision is that each node will consist of 1) sensors of the same or different modalities, 2) a computer processor to generate features from the raw sensor data, 3) a radio link to communicate with other nodes, and 4) a battery to supply power. In many applications, the sensor network must operate in a clandestine manner where the nodes are dispersed via airdrop or cannon fire. Therefore, the physical size of each node is limited, and the nodes must operate under the assumption that the batteries cannot be replaced or recharged.
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globalNodesSelectionforWSN - I INTRODUCTION Global Node...

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