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Unformatted text preview: Access to Higher Education Access to Higher Education Until the '70s, many colleges and universities refused to admit women. It was believed that women were more concerned about marriage and children than higher education. Since Title IX Since Title IX Women now earn undergraduate and graduate degrees at much higher rates than they used to and go into some fields that were traditionally dominated by men, such as medicine and law. Athletics Athletics Only 1 in 27 girls played high school sports. There were virtually no college scholarships for female athletes. And female college athletes received only two percent of overall athletic budgets. Since Title IX Since Title IX
Real growth in the number of women who participate in sports, receive scholarships, and benefit from increased budgets. More opportunities to compete at elite levels through competitions like the Olympics, World Championships and professional leagues. Career Education Career Education Schools were allowed to deny women training in fields that society considered "inappropriate" for them. Therefore, women trained primarily for lowwage, traditionally female jobs like health aides and cosmetologists. Since Title IX Since Title IX Schools can no longer legally shut doors to certain courses or training on the basis of sex. The law says girls must be free to pursue career training in courses like aviation, automotive repair, and architectural drafting, while boys can choose to pursue cooking, nursing, and cosmetology. Career training must be by choice not by gender. The majority of women working in Employment Employment education taught in elementary and secondary schools. Those who did teach in colleges were primarily at women's colleges, usually weren't awarded tenure, and earned smaller salaries than their male counterparts. Only a few women were hired in highlevel administrative positions throughout all of educational institutions. Since Title IX Since Title IX Academia's doors are opening to women faculty. Title IX has led to a higher number of female faculty members, especially at the lecturer, instructor and assistant professor levels. The wage gap has narrowed, now some women can finally be found in top administrative positions. Learning Environment Learning Environment Males were seen as active, inventive, and brave. Popular and harmful gender stereotypes were common and were mirrored in schoolbooks: Few females portrayed were presented as dependent, nurturing, and accommodating. Most women were only portrayed as fulltime wives and mothers, or secretaries, nurses, and teachers. In the classroom, boys received the attention from teachers in the classroom. It was generally believed that math and science were for boys and the arts and literature were for girls. Since Title IX Since Title IX Gender stereotypes are changing in society, texts, and classrooms. Equal attention and supportive learning environment in all subject areas have been recognized important to ensure that girls get the most from their education. Girls are encouraged to follow careers such as scientists, doctors, lawyers and engineers. Math and Science Math and Science Everybody just accepted it: the stereotype was that girls didn't like math and science and therefore couldn't be good at it. Girls were sometimes steered away from higher level classes in these subjects and discouraged from joining math and science clubs. (The fact is, girls start out in grade school scoring as well as or close to boys in standardized tests. By high school, the numbers drop.) Since Title IX Since Title IX High school girls now take upperlevel math and science courses required for math and science majors in college at the same rate as boys. Between 1987 and 1997, the percentage of girls taking Advanced Placement calculus increased by 6% and the percentage taking AP physics increased by 10%. Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment Before Title IX, making sexual innuendos, calling people sexually charged names, spreading rumors about sexual activity, or touching someone inappropriately used to be dismissed as "boys will be boys" type of behavior at best, and rude or crude at worst. Since Title IX Since Title IX Sexual harassment in education includes any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior that significantly interferes with a student's access to educational opportunities. The Supreme Court has confirmed that schools have an obligation under Title IX to prevent and address harassment against students, whether perpetrated by peers or by employees of the school system. Technology Technology The old stereotype that girls cannot achieve in math and science took on a new dimension when we entered the technology revolution. Computer programming was considered male territory, and computer games were designed as boys' toys. If a woman used a computer, it was for data entry. Since Title IX Since Title IX Students keep up with technology, not only for their education, but also for later employment. Title IX opened the doors to technology for women and girls. Today, girls and boys spend equal amounts of time on the computer both at home and at school. Boys leave high school, however, with a greater interest in and knowledge of computers. How can teachers get around gender bias? Besides Title IX Besides Title IX Avoid stereotypes Checking textbooks Watching for unintended bias in activities and practices Use gender free language. Promoting integration CoEd groups Treating females and males equally Equal opportunities Leadership roles Establish strong role models Ensure that all students have the chance to do complex technical work. Slavin, Robert. "356.Defever:How to Avoid Gender Bias in the Classroom." University of Michigan. University of Michigan. <http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.defever/how_to_avoid_gender_bias_in_the_classroom>. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2009 for the course ED 210 taught by Professor Thorkildeson during the Spring '09 term at Ill. Chicago.
- Spring '09