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Unformatted text preview: small because of the low density. | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents | Study Guide 6.7 Minor Losses in Pipe Systems 6.7 Minor Losses in Pipe Systems7 367 For any pipe system, in addition to the Moody-type friction loss computed for the length of pipe, there are additional so-called minor losses due to 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pipe entrance or exit Sudden expansion or contraction Bends, elbows, tees, and other fittings Valves, open or partially closed Gradual expansions or contractions The losses may not be so minor; e.g., a partially closed valve can cause a greater pressure drop than a long pipe. Since the flow pattern in fittings and valves is quite complex, the theory is very weak. The losses are commonly measured experimentally and correlated with the pipeflow parameters. The data, especially for valves, are somewhat dependent upon the particular manufacturer’s design, so that the values listed here must be taken as average design estimates [15, 16, 35, 43, 46]. The measured minor loss is usually g...
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