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End of Book - Appendix A Physical Properties of Fluids 0.5...

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Fig. A.1 Absolute viscosity of com- mon fluids at 1 atm. Appendix A Physical Properties of Fluids Absolute viscosity µ , N s / m 2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 6 4 3 2 1 × 10 3 1 × 10 4 1 × 10 5 5 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temperature, ° C Aniline Mercury Kerosine Air 6 4 3 2 6 4 3 2 Hydrogen Carbon dioxide Helium Benzene Gasoline (SG 0.68) Water Ethyl alcohol Carbon tetrachloride Crude oil (SG 0.86) Castor oil SAE 30 oil Glycerin SAE 10 oil 769
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Fig. A.2 Kinematic viscosity of common fluids at 1 atm. 770 Appendix A Kinematic viscosity ν , m 2 / s 1 × 10 3 8 6 4 3 2 1 × 10 4 1 × 10 5 1 × 10 6 1 × 10 7 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temperature, ° C 8 6 4 3 2 8 6 4 3 2 8 6 4 3 2 Mercury Gasoline (SG 0.68) Carbon tetrachloride Water Ethyl alcohol Kerosine Benzene Crude oil (SG 0.86) Carbon dioxide SAE 30 oil Air and oxygen Hydrogen SAE 10 oil Glycerin Helium
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Table A.1 Viscosity and Density of Water at 1 atm Suggested curve fits for water in the range 0 T 100 ° C: (kg/m 3 ) 1000 0.0178 T ° C 4 ° C 1.7 0.2% ln 0 1.704 5.306 z 7.003 z 2 z 2 T 73 K K 0 1.788 E-3 kg/(m s) Physical Properties of Fluids 771 T , °C , kg/m 3 , N s/m 2 , m 2 /s T , °F , slug/ft 3 , lb s/ft 2 , ft 2 /s 0 1000 1.788 E-3 1.788 E-6 32 1.940 3.73 E-5 1.925 E-5 10 1000 1.307 E-3 1.307 E-6 50 1.940 2.73 E-5 1.407 E-5 20 998 1.003 E-3 1.005 E-6 68 1.937 2.09 E-5 1.082 E-5 30 996 0.799 E-3 0.802 E-6 86 1.932 1.67 E-5 0.864 E-5 40 992 0.657 E-3 0.662 E-6 104 1.925 1.37 E-5 0.713 E-5 50 988 0.548 E-3 0.555 E-6 122 1.917 1.14 E-5 0.597 E-5 60 983 0.467 E-3 0.475 E-6 140 1.908 0.975 E-5 0.511 E-5 70 978 0.405 E-3 0.414 E-6 158 1.897 0.846 E-5 0.446 E-5 80 972 0.355 E-3 0.365 E-6 176 1.886 0.741 E-5 0.393 E-5 90 965 0.316 E-3 0.327 E-6 194 1.873 0.660 E-5 0.352 E-5 100 958 0.283 E-3 0.295 E-6 212 1.859 0.591 E-5 0.318 E-5 Table A.2 Viscosity and Density of Air at 1 atm T , °C , kg/m 3 , N s/m 2 , m 2 /s T , °F , slug/ft 3 , lb s/ft 2 , ft 2 /s 40 1.52 0 1.51 E-5 0.99 E-5 40 2.94 E-3 3.16 E-7 1.07 E-4 0 1.29 0 1.71 E-5 1.33 E-5 32 2.51 E-3 3.58 E-7 1.43 E-4 20 1.20 0 1.80 E-5 1.50 E-5 68 2.34 E-3 3.76 E-7 1.61 E-4 50 1.09 0 1.95 E-5 1.79 E-5 122 2.12 E-3 4.08 E-7 1.93 E-4 100 0.946 2.17 E-5 2.30 E-5 212 1.84 E-3 4.54 E-7 2.47 E-4 150 0.835 2.38 E-5 2.85 E-5 302 1.62 E-3 4.97 E-7 3.07 E-4 200 0.746 2.57 E-5 3.45 E-5 392 1.45 E-3 5.37 E-7 3.71 E-4 250 0.675 2.75 E-5 4.08 E-5 482 1.31 E-3 5.75 E-7 4.39 E-4 300 0.616 2.93 E-5 4.75 E-5 572 1.20 E-3 6.11 E-7 5.12 E-4 400 0.525 3.25 E-5 6.20 E-5 752 1.02 E-3 6.79 E-7 6.67 E-4 500 0.457 3.55 E-5 7.77 E-5 932 0.89 E-3 7.41 E-7 8.37 E-4 Suggested curve fits for air: R p T R air 287 J/(kg K) Power law: 0 T T 0 0.7 Sutherland law: 0 T T 0 3/2 T T 0 S S S air 110.4 K with T 0 273 K, 0 1.71 E-5 kg/(m s), and T in kelvins.
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Table A.3 Properties of Common Liquids at 1 atm and 20 ° C (68 ° F) Molecular Specific-heat Power-law Gas weight R , m 2 /(s 2 K) g , N/m 3 , N s/m 2 ratio exponent n H 2 2.016 4124 0 0.822 9.05 E-6 1.41 0.68 He 4.003 2077 0 1.63 0 1.97 E-5 1.66 0.67 H 2 O 18.02 0 0 461 0 7.35 0 1.02 E-5 1.33 1.15 Ar 39.944 0 208 16.3 00 2.24 E-5 1.67 0.72 Dry air 28.96 0 0 287 11.8 00 1.80 E-5 1.40 0.67 CO 2 44.01 0 0 189 17.9 00 1.48 E-5 1.30 0.79 CO 28.01 0 0 297 11.4 00 1.82 E-5 1.40 0.71 N 2 28.02 0 0 297 11.4 00 1.76 E-5 1.40 0.67 O 2 32.00 0 0 260 13.1 00 2.00 E-5 1.40 0.69 NO 30.01 0 0 277 12.1 00 1.90 E-5 1.40 0.78 N 2 O 44.02 0 0 189 17.9 00 1.45 E-5 1.31 0.89 Cl 2 70.91 0 0 117 28.9 00 1.03 E-5 1.34 1.00 CH 4 16.04 0 0 518 0 6.54 0 1.34 E-5 1.32 0.87 The power-law curve fit, Eq. (1.27), / 293K ( T /293) n , fits these gases to within 4 percent in the range 250 T 1000 K. The temperature must be in kelvins. 772 Appendix A Bulk modulus, Viscosity Liquid , kg/m 3 , kg/(m s) , N/m* p , N/m 2 N/m 2 parameter C Ammonia 13, 608 2.20 E-4 2.13 E-2 9.10 E 5 1.05 Benzene 13, 881 6.51 E-4 2.88 E-2 1.01 E 4 1.4 3 E 9 4.34 Carbon tetrachloride 3 1,590 9.67 E-4 2.70 E-2 1.20 E 4 9.65 E 8 4.45 Ethanol 13, 789 1.20 E-3 2.28 E-2 5.7 3 E 3 9.0 3 E 8 5.72 Ethylene glycol 3 1,117 2.14 E-2 4.84 E-2 1.2 3 E 1 11.7
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