Ch. 14 - Notecards

Ch. 14 - Notecards - He was Portuguese-born Spanish...

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Unformatted text preview: He was Portuguese-born Spanish explorer and navigator, leader of the first expedition to circumnavigate, or sail completely around, the world. He was born in northern Portugal. Magellan set out to reach the East Indies by sailing westward from Europe, which no one was sure could be done. He intended to return by the same route, but after his death his crews found that the prevailing winds required them to keep sailing west, around the world. Hernando Cortez was a Spanish conquistador who first reached what is now Mexico in 1519. He conquered the main Aztec city, Tenochititln, which was ruled by Montezuma. He was able to conquer the city with the help of 50,000 warriors from the state of Tlaxcala and small pox, a European disease to which the Aztecs had no immunity. After the fall of the city, Cortez dismantled the Aztec temples, pyramids, and palaces in order to build state buildings. These were French Calvinists, who comprised about 7% to 10% of the French population. The French kings were worried about the Huguenots perhaps because so much of the French nobility had converted to Calvinism. This made them a potential political threat to the monarchy, who persecuted the Huguenots. She was married to Henry II of France, the queen of France from 1547 to 1559, and was the mother of the last three Valois kings of France. She was a major force in French politics during the 30 years of Roman Catholic-Huguenot wars and an instigator of the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day. This was a massacre of Huguenots led by Henry of Guise during the wedding celebration of Henry of Navarre and the sister of Charles IX. The massacre was approved by the king and his mother, Catherine de Medici, because Henry of Guise convinced them that the Huguenots were planning a revolt and should be destroyed before they were able to gain power. Three thousand Huguenots were killed in Paris. These were people who placed politics before religion and believed that no religious truth could justify civil war. Essentially, they believed that the state was more important than the Church. A perfect example of this is Queen Elizabeth of England. He was the Bourbon leader of Navarre. He was the son of Jeanne d Albret, the queen of Navarre, who had introduced Calvinism to her kingdom. Henry was the acknowledged leader of the Huguenots. He later becomes Henry IV of France. This war was the fighting which continued after the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre. After the massacre, the Huguenots rebuilt their strength. The radical Catholics supported their champion, Henry, Duke of Guise, to become king. Henry of Guise seized Paris in 1588 and made King Henry III his chief minister. Soon thereafter, Henry III had Henry of Guise assassinated. He then sided with Henry of Navarre. A Catholic monk assassinated Henry III because he was repulsed by the idea that the French King would align himself with a Protestant. This allowed Henry of Navarre to take the throne. He becomes Catholic. This is the official proclamation issued in 1598 making...
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Ch. 14 - Notecards - He was Portuguese-born Spanish...

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