Ch. 16 - Notecards - The scientific method is the process...

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The scientific method is the process considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. Scientists use observations, hypotheses and deductions to propose explanations for natural phenomena in the form of theories. Predictions from these theories are tested by experiment. The scientific method is basically a very cautious means of building a supportable, evidence-based understanding of our natural world.
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Empiricism is generally regarded as being at the heart of the modern scientific method , that our theories should be based on our observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith ; that is, empirical research and inductive reasoning rather than purely deductive logic . These ideas are the opposite of continental rationalism , epitomized by René Descartes , in which philosophy should be performed via introspection and deductive reasoning . St. Thomas Aquinas , Aristotle , Thomas Hobbes , Francis Bacon , John Locke , George Berkeley , and David Hume are all associated with empiricism.
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Thomas Hobbes , living from 1588 to 1679 , was a noted English political philosopher , most famous for his book Leviathan , written in 1651 . He believed that an absolute monarchy was necessary because man in incapable of ruling himself. He also believed that we are born with a completely blank slate and are totally influenced by society and class.
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John Locke , living from 1632 to 1704, was a philosopher concerned primarily with society. An Englishman, Locke's notions of man's natural rights—life, liberty, and estate (property)—had an enormous influence on the development of political philosophy. His ideas formed the basis for the concepts used in American law and government, allowing the colonists to justify revolution. His ideas are completely different than those of Thomas Hobbs.
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Galileo Galilei , living from 1564 to 1642), was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist. His achievements include improving the telescope, a variety of astronomical observations, the first law of motion, and supporting the
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2009 for the course HISTORY HIST1120 taught by Professor Collins during the Fall '05 term at University of Tennessee.

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Ch. 16 - Notecards - The scientific method is the process...

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