Ch 22 Notecards - The Crimean War began in 1853 in the Crimean Peninsula Originally it was fought between Russia and the Ottoman Empire because of

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The Crimean War began in 1853 in the Crimean Peninsula. Originally, it was fought between Russia and the Ottoman Empire because of Russia’s desire to have easy access to the Mediterranean, and to protect Christianity. In 1854, France and Britain declared war on Russia in order to protect the balance of power. If Russia were to get the Crimean peninsula, they would upset this balance and would challenge British naval superiority. It was a very costly war that destroyed Austria and Russia’s relationship and made LN a major international figure.
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Formed in 1860, the Red Shirts were a band of about 1,000 republican-romantic nationalists led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, a strong nationalist wishing to unite all of Italy. They moved northward beginning in Sicily and freely surrendered to the Piedmont’s army under Cavour.
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The Zollverein was formed between the 38 states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution to create a better trade flow and reduce internal competition. It was established by Frederick William III of Prussia, and Luxembourg joining in 1842.
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Realpolitik , German for “practical politics”, was practiced by Bismarck. It focuses on the balance of power among nation-states, and is a foreign policy based on practical concerns rather than ideals or ethics. In realpolitik, Bismarck generously bred militarism and diplomacy to make Austria look bad and Prussia look good so that Germany would unite on Prussian terms.
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Begun in 1866, the Austro-Prussian War was a creation of Bismarck. First Bismarck got Russia, Italy, and France to remain neutral in the event of war. Using Schleswig- Holstein to get Austria to declare war, the Prussian army had better guns and at Kiniggratz, Austria lost the war. Italy got Venetia, and Austria was disconnected from Germany. German states began to call themselves the North German Confederation.
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North German Confederation was made up of all northern German states. In the NGC, every state had its own government, but at the head of it all was Bismarck and the Prussian king. It had a parliament consisting of two houses – Bundestrat and Reichstag. Military matters were Bismarck’s to deal with.
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2009 for the course HISTORY HIST1120 taught by Professor Collins during the Fall '05 term at University of Tennessee.

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Ch 22 Notecards - The Crimean War began in 1853 in the Crimean Peninsula Originally it was fought between Russia and the Ottoman Empire because of

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