Ch. 24- Notecards - Albert Einstein was born in Germany in...

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Unformatted text preview: Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879. He became a theoretical physicist whose special and general theories of relativity revolutionized modern thought on the nature of space and time and formed a theoretical base for the exploitation of atomic energy. He won a 1921 Nobel Prize for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. At first, his ideas were not readily accepted by many. Friedrich Nietzsche was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. Nietzsche, who declared that God is dead, was passionately opposed to Christianity. He developed the concept of the Superman, or Overman, a superior human being, not bound by conventional notions of right and wrong. He glorified the irrational. Herbert Spencer was an English philosopher and prominent liberal political theorist. He is chiefly remembered as the father of Social Darwinism, a school of thought that applied the evolutionist theory of survival of the fittest to human societies. He also contributed to a wide range of subjects, including ethics, metaphysics, religion, politics, rhetoric, biology and psychology. Georges Sorel, a French social philosopher, combined Bergsons and Nietzsches ideas on the limits of rational thinking with his own passionate interest in revolutionary som. He understood the political potential of the nonrational and advocated violent action as the only sure way to achieve the aims of som. He recommended the use of a general strike to destroy capitalist society. Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician and founder of psychoanalysis who theorized that the symptoms of hysterical patients represent forgotten and unresolved infantile psychosexual conflicts. His psychoanalytic theories, which initially met with hostility, profoundly influenced 20th-century thought. Psychoanalysis is a method of treating mental illness, developed by Sigmund Freud, in which it is believed that...
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Ch. 24- Notecards - Albert Einstein was born in Germany in...

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