Optoelectronics-Basic

Optoelectronics-Basic - Rents Rule: Applied to Optics 32...

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0 2 4 8 16 32 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Scaling of performance in time Time in units τ Time unit τ Microelectronics: 18 months! Ο ptical commun: 18-24 months!!! “Rent’s Rule”: Applied to Optics Bandwidth per wavelength saturates WDM is the path upward
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Raw data: uncompressed Voice (telephony) 64 kbit/sec 4 pages/sec Color Image (830 x 620, 24 bits) 12 Mbit 780 pages Color Image (1280 x 1024, 24 bits) 32 Mbit 2000 pages Color Video (830 x 620, 24 bits) 360 Mbit/sec 24,000 pages/sec Compressed: Voice 10/1 Image 20/1 Video 40/1 Voice (telephony) 6 kbit/sec 0.4 pages/sec Color Image (830 x 620, 24 bits) 0.6 Mbit 40 pages Color Image (1280 x 1024, 24 bits) 1.6 Mbit 100 pages Color Video (1280 x 1024, 24 bits) 9 Mbit/sec 600 pages/sec What Do The Data Rates Mean The Information Types Assume: 8 bits/letter, 8 letters/word, 200 words/page
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What Do The Data Rates Mean Network Types Network Data Rate Pages/sec Pages/Books/sec Modem 56 kbit/sec 4 pages/sec 4 pages/sec Standard Ethernet 10 Mbit/sec 650 pages/sec 2 books/sec Fast Ethernet 100 Mbit/sec 6,500 pages/sec 20 books/sec Standard Optical 1 Gbit/sec 65,000 pages/sec 200 books/sec WDM Optical 50 Gbit/sec 3 Mpages/sec 10 Kbooks/sec Today- WDM 1 Tbit/sec 65 Mpages/sec 200 Kbooks/sec Future ?? ?? Lots of authors Assumes: 8 bits/letter, 8 letters/word, 200 words/page, approx 300 pages/book
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Optical WDM Network Elements WDM transmitter WDM multiplexer WDM amplifier WDM switch WDM receivers WDM demultiplexer WDM amplifier Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM): Multiple wavelengths in a single fiber Handling many wavelengths Single mode fiber Conventional: single wavelength per fiber Handling many fibers
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Representative physics topics Basic semiconductor crystal physics Equilibrium electrons/holes densities Basic equations of electronic devices Photon generation/absorption Basic equations for photonic devices Representative microfabrication topics Microfabrication technologies Microfabricated device structures Scaling to smaller dimensions Representative application areas Optoelectronics & communications Microelectronics & VLSI High speed RF for wireless Si Donor EE471 Topics Acceptor P-type N-type DIODE Source Gate Drain NMOS Transistor N ++ N ++ P-type MOSFET
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Indirect gap (e.g. silicon) k E C E V E k Direct gap (e.g. GaAs) E C E V E C E V E k C e-h combining to produce photon. Need to conserve energy, momentum, mass, charge, etc. Photon: g = h ϖ /2 π mass = 0, p = mv = 0, p = hk/2 π Thus k photon = 0 E C E V +? Need something else to conserve k e h Electron and hole arrive at same place at same time. Producing a photon? No mass left. No carriers left.
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The Diode P-Type (Charge neutral) N-Type (Charge neutral) Bring together Electrons diffuse to P-Type side. Positive donor ions left behind Holes diffuse to N-Type side. Negative acceptor ions left behind Depletion layer forms P-Type (Charge neutral) D + ions A -- ions N-Type (Charge neutral)
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The Diode P-Type (Charge neutral) N-Type (Charge neutral) Depletion Region A - D + n p =0 n p n p n p Excess electrons n p =0 p n p n p n Excess holes Zero bias Forward bias Reverse bias
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The Diode P-Type
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Optoelectronics-Basic - Rents Rule: Applied to Optics 32...

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