01-Introduction - TheArtandScienceof CHAPTER 1...

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Introduction C H A P T E R 1 [The Analytical Engine offers] a new, a vast, and a powerful language . . . for the purposes of mankind. —Augusta Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace, 1843 1.1 A brief history of computing 1.2 What is computer science? 1.3 A brief tour of computer hardware 1.4 Algorithms 1.5 Stages in the programming process 1.6 Java and the object-oriented paradigm 1.7 Java and the World Wide Web The Art and Science of An Introduction to Computer Science ERIC S. ROBERTS Jav a
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A Brief History of Computing Although electronic computers are relatively new, mechanical computers are much older. The abacus goes back almost 4000 years. In the 17th century, several mechanical computing devices were developed in Europe. Reconstruction of 1623 Wilhelm Schickard machine (Deutsches Museum, Munich) Blaise Pascal’s 1641 “Pascaline” machine ( Musée des Arts et Metiers, Paris ) Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz’s calculating wheel (ca. 1671) (IBM) The most important conceptual breakthroughs, however, came in the early part of the 19th century . . .
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Babbage’s Machines Charles Babbage (1791-1871) Charles Babbage is one of the most fascinating figures in the history of computing. Captivated by the idea that he could build a machine to produce mathematical tables, Babbage designed two machines, the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine , that anticipated many of the features found in modern computers. Although Babbage was unable to finish either machine during his lifetime, the Science Museum in London was able to complete a full-scale Difference Engine for the 200th anniversary of his birth.
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Ada Byron, The First Programmer Augusta Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace (1815–1852) Augusta Ada Byron, the daughter of English poet Lord Byron, was encouraged to pursue her interests in science and mathematics at a time when few women were allowed to study those subjects. At the age of 17, Ada met Charles Babbage and became fascinated by his machines. Ada was convinced of the potential of Babbage’s Analytical Engine and wrote extensive notes on its design, along with several complex mathematical programs that have led many people to characterize her as the first programmer. In 1980, the U.S. Department of Defense named the programming language Ada in her honor.
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2009 for the course COMP SCI 1MD3 taught by Professor Various during the Winter '07 term at McMaster University.

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01-Introduction - TheArtandScienceof CHAPTER 1...

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