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finalglossary - EEMB40: Ecology of Disease Glossary Acute...

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EEMB40: Ecology of Disease – Glossary Acute disease An acute disease is a disease with either a rapid onset or a short duration, or both. Acute is  NOT synonymous with ‘severe’. Cf. Chronic AIDS (Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) An infectious disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Transmission  occurs via one of three routes: vertical transmission, transmission via body fluids (eg sharing  needles) or via sexual transmission. Amplification Adding a species to a community increases the total abundance of hosts for a pathogen,  increasing the disease risk to the target host. Antibiotic A chemical substance that kills or suppresses the growth of microorganisms.  Antibiotics are  designed to be taken to cure disease. Antibiotic Resistance The ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. Antibody Proteins that are found in blood of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify  and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. Antigen A molecule that can stimulate an immune response. Antigen drift The random accumulation of mutations in viral genes recognized by the immune system.  Such  accumulation may significantly change the antigens of the virus, and may help it evade the  immune system. Antigen shift Antigenic shift is the process by which two different strains of influenza combine to form a new  subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. Antiviral
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A chemical substance that kills or suppresses the growth of viruses. Antivirals are designed to  be taken to cure or control disease. Asymptomatic Individuals who are infected by a disease but do not show any of the typical symptoms. Attenuated Reducing the virulence of an organism, usually a virus, whilst keeping it viable. BCG Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of  the attenuated (weakened) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus,  Mycobacterium bovis . Beta ( β ) Infection rate in the SIR model beta-lactam antibiotics A broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin and its derivatives. They are the most widely  used group of antibiotics available. Black Death (1347-1351) One of the most deadly pandemics in human history, widely thought to have been caused by  Bubonic Plague.  Bolivian hemorrhagic fever A zoonotic infectious disease of man caused by a virus and transmitted to man via rodents. Borrelia burgdorferi
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2009 for the course MCDB eemd40 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '09 term at UCSB.

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finalglossary - EEMB40: Ecology of Disease Glossary Acute...

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