Unformatted text preview: Social Roles & Interaction
S O C I O L O G Y 1 BROOKS PROFESSOR 1 Announcements Announcements
Reading: Marriage and Family (Ch 14), Brooks on Macking (ilearn), Obama (The Months Passed – End) 2 Review Messner Gender Protection of masculinity and femininity
3 Lecture 1 Introduction 1 of My Favorites Doing Gender article Doing Gender article by West & Zimmerman, 1987 A reconceptualization of Favorites gender as not so much a set of traits residing with individuals, but as something people do in their social interactions. Gender is fundamentally about social interaction and relationships It is embedded in every aspect of everyday interactions One's actions in doing gender simultaneously produces, reproduces, sustains and legitimates the social meanings accorded to gender. Insofar as society is structured according to sex categorization of Gender is not merely a role, for while roles are situated identities, gender is a master identity that cuts across situations. Gender is also not simply a display, a display implies something not so fundamental and a limited aspect of human interaction. Favorites Sex is a determination made through Favorites the application of socially agreed upon biological criteria for classifying persons as females or males. Sex category, while achieved through application of sex criteria, acts as a proxy for categorization based on "sex" in everyday life and thus it is established and sustained by the socially required identificatory displays that proclaim one's membership in one or the other category. It is important to note that it is possible to claim membership in a sex category even if one lacks the required traits based on biological "sex". Gender is the activity. It is the activities of managing situated conduct in light of normative conceptions of attitudes and activities appropriate for one's sex category. Sex categorization depends on the commonsense categorization, in the sense that people are categorized into either male or female sex category automatically. Gender involves far more complex set of recipes for activities that must be modified subtly according to different situations. Any type of social interactions Favorites and activities are potentially subject to "doing gender" that is, making one's actions accountable in terms of their appropriateness to sex category. The authors call these situations as "resources" for doing gender. “Doing gender” has the effect of reinforcing the notion of "essential difference between females and males". Gendered activities are not “natural” but a production of gender differences. This is crucial in maintaining the status quo of subordination of women to men, the authors state. Thus, effective change modification in cultural and institutional aspects of sex category, as well as at the interactional level, are People with equal status are more likely to interact (students are more likely to interact with other students than with professors) interests) Over time we interact with others similar to us (common Frequency of contact impacts feeling/liking – generally more contact leads to more liking sentiments of friendship Frequent interaction and increased liking = increased Homan’s 4 Principles (1961) Homan’s 4 Principles 9 Matching Matching Rather than looking for the best looking, over time and for long term rltnshps, people come to be “realistic” and pursue or are most interested in others who match their attractiveness (beauty is only skin deep) 10 Why do we enter Why do we enter relationships? 11 can only be met through close relationships Weiss’ 5 Needs (1969) Weiss’ 5 Needs Need for intimacy compels us to share feelings with one another Need for social integration requires someone with whom to share our concerns and worries Need for being nurturant is best met by being with another whom we can take care of Need for assistance involves another who will help us in times of need Need for reassurance of our own worth requires that we are with someone who will tell us that we are important
12 Needs based arguments are circular Needs based arguments are circular Behavior is explained by an underlying cause and then go on to predict the behavior based on the corresponding need. how might one live without others? An alternative is the inevitability of contact 13 Belongingness Hypothesis Belongingness Hypothesis Human beings are social and have a natural need for each other We start relationships (intimacy, reassurance, nurturance, exchange/assistance, trust and sharing/social integration) We have strong emotions and thoughts about others Belonging sustains life (marriage, suicide, and death) 14 Proof for Belongingness Hypothesis Proof for Belongingness Hypothesis
Humans form bonds easily Infants develop attachments to caregivers Loss of social bonds result in distress Connections provoke thought, emotions and affect health. 15 Need for Affiliation Need for Affiliation
A desire to establish and maintain many rewarding interpersonal relationships such as friendships because we
o Need social contact o Are interdependent o Need assistance in times of uncertainty 16 People fall along a continuum of high and low affiliation extrovert and introvert Intimacy waders vs. jumpers 17 Affiliation and Intimacy Affiliation and Intimacy are not mutually exclusive Hi Intimacy – low satisfaction with socializing (many friends and acquaintances) close rltnshp Hi Affiliation – difficulty with initiating and maintaining single, 18 Too much social contact and many want some solitude. Conversely, too much solitude and most desire some social contact. socialcontact and and S O L I T U D E 19 Which is more important? Which is more important?
Need for Affiliation or Intimacy Need for Intimacy is a better predictor of a person’s overall psychosocial adjustment. 20 Need to Belong Need to Belong
Need for Affiliation and Intimacy are not separate or mutually exclusive (affiliation generally precludes intimacy) 21 ...
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- Summer '07
- Sociology, Interpersonal relationship, sex category, belongingness hypothesis, social interactions. Gender, category automatically. Gender