newstudy - Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution May 3...

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Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution - May 3, 1947 - A clause in the constitution that prevents the Japanese government from any acts of war. - Forbids them from maintaining air, land, and sea forces. - They have a Self Defense Force, but it is considered an extension of the police. - Enacted by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers - Douglas MacArthur Consumption Tax - A tax on the spending on goods and services. Like a sales tax. Diet of Japan - Bicameral Legislature - House of Councillors - The Upper House - 480 members - 300 are elected by Single Member Plurality, where the candidate with the largest number of votes wins regardless of absolute majority. - 180 are elected by party list system proportional representation. - This means voters vote for the party, and seats are allocated proportionally. The party then chooses the candidates to fill those seats awarded to them. Since 1982. - House of Representatives - The Lower House - 242 members - 146 are elected by SNTV - 96 are elected by party list system proportional representation. - Election of Diet members controlled by Diet, and thus by LDP, which is supported by rural areas, and thus grant rural areas more representation than urban areas. SNTV - Single non-transferable vote - When multiple seats are offered, the parties must decide strategically how many candidates to put up for those seats. If they choose too many, over nomination, they divide the vote and may gain less seats or none. If they choose too little, under nomination, they give opportunities for other parties to gain more seats because there will be excess votes for their candidates.. - A party in control may opt to field less candidates because they have more to lose, as opposed to a rising party who has more to gain by fielding more. - Candidates of the same party are not only running against other parties, but also against themselves. They must be careful to not draw too many votes away from their allies. The LDP controls this. Electioneering Restrictions - Candidates are restricted to only campaign during designated periods. Also, there is a limit to how many signs can be posted, how long their websites can be actively updated, and there is to be no tv or radio announcements. - This makes the use of the Koenkai important to electioneering. - These rules helped incumbents, which in turn were often members of the LDP. It made it more difficult for new candidates with new party lines to spread their message, where as the LDP was the government and everybody knew what the government was like. Koenkai - - These are local support groups. - Used by the Diet members to obtain funds and to give out favors to the constituents in return.
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- This is one of the methods used to circumvent the stringent electioneering rules. Outside of the campaign time, the Koenkai can hold meetings to help their candidate.
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  • Spring '09
  • ENGINEER
  • japan, LDP, Politics of Japan, Democratic Party of Japan, House of Representatives of Japan, House of Councillors

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