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Copyright © 2003 American Psychological Society CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 99 ences, and how to enhance cogni- tive skills? We need to identify the brain processes that influence cogni- tion. Jensen has found correla- tions between g and elementary cognitive tasks (mental process- ing speed), the brain’s electrical response to stimuli, and how quickly an injection of glucose is absorbed by the brain. Hope for further advance in this area lies in new techniques of viewing what brain centers are active when different cognitive tasks are being done. We should learn more about so- cial multipliers. Boozer and Cac- ciola (2001) showed that when reduced class size raises aca- demic performance, peer inter- action multiplies that rise and accounts for virtually all of the long-term gains. The relative potency of Whites’ and Blacks’ social multipliers should be compared. Although teaching children “how to think” is desirable, we should recognize that this will not neces- sarily enhance numeracy and lit- eracy. The focus must be on teaching reading and arithmetic skills. And note that if we really want to enhance those skills, there will have to be an attitude shift, so that Americans welcome core subjects that make greater cognitive demands. If all parents and children were like Chinese Americans, the “nation’s report card” would improve dramati- cally. Above all, we must go beyond g to develop a theory of intelli- gence with a sociological dimen- sion. In this theory, g will still play an important role. Within every generation, people com- pete to win, and, therefore, g will always help explain why some people excel across so many cog- nitive skills. Recommended Reading Deary, I.J. (2001). Intelligence: A very short introduction . Oxford, En- gland: Oxford University Press. April 21). Great leap forward. New Scientist , 170 , 44–47. Jensen, A.R. (1998). The g factor: The science of mental ability . Westport, CT: Praeger. Note 1. Address correspondence to J.R. Flynn, POLS, University of Otago, Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand; e-mail: [email protected] References Boozer, M., & Cacciola, S.E. (2001). Inside the black box of Project STAR: Estimation of peer effects us- ing experimental data (Center Discussion Paper No. 832). New Haven, CT: Yale University Economic Growth Center. Greenfield, P. (1998). The cultural evolution of IQ. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The rising curve: Long-term gains in IQ and related measures (pp. 81–123). Washington, DC: American Psychological As- sociation. Howard, R.W. (1999). Preliminary real-world evi- dence that average intelligence really is rising. Intelligence , 27 , 235–250.
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2009 for the course HD 2610 taught by Professor Mikels,j. during the Fall '07 term at Cornell.

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