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Unformatted text preview: Attachment “But when my Mummy wasn’t dead I didn’t need so many peoplemany people- I needed just one.”
Wendy, age 4 Overview
Hazan, Campa & Gur-Yaish (2006) Gur- Basics Basics of Attachment Attachment Attachment after Infancy Individual Individual Differences in Attachment 1 How It All Began
John John Bowlby examined mental health of orphaned children “Continuous warm relationship” important Why? Why?
Evolutionarily Evolutionarily adaptive Maintain Maintain proximity to ensure survival Activation Activation during threat What is Attachment? Emotional Emotional bond
Felt security Felt security The The goal of attachment is felt security, and this is achieved by maintaining proximity Attachment Attachment Behavior
Behavior activated by fear or threat in the environment 1) 1) Proximity maintenance 2) 2) Safe haven 3) 3) Secure base 4) 4) Separation distress 2 What activates or terminates the attachment system?
An An individual’s level of felt security
Internal Internal and external factors Greater Greater the activation, the greater proximity needed to terminate AgeAge-related changes in activation and termination AttachmentAttachment-exploration continuum
Attachment Exploration |----------------------------------------| ----------------------------------------| When attachment system is activated, there is less exploration; one is preoccupied with establishing proximity to the attachment figure How does an attachment bond develop in children? children
PrePre-attachment (0-2 mos): open to (0accepting care from anyone Attachment-in-theAttachment-in-the-making (2-6 mos): (2discriminating among individuals ClearClear-cut attachment (6-7 mos): all (6behaviors that define attachment are evident GoalGoal-corrected partnership (36 mos): aware that caregiver has other needs 3 Attachment Hierarchy
One One primary attachment figure to rely on Infants adopted by lesbian couples had Infants adopted by lesbian couples had a primary primary attachment to one mother ((Bennett, 2003) Bennett, What happens with attachment after infancy?
Over Over time, temporary separation from attachment figures becomes easier attachment figures becomes easier Focus Focus on mental representations
Early Early experiences shape way of thinking about relationships How does attachment develop over the lifespan?
Attachment Attachment behavior and its targets change over time
(Trinke and Bartholomew, 1997;Hazan and Zeifman, 1994; Fraley and Davis, 1997) Zeifman, 6-17 year-olds (Hazan and Zeifman, 1994) year(Hazan Zeifman,
Proximity maintenanceProximity maintenance- to friends Safe havenSafe haven- shift in ages 10-14 to friends 10Separation distress and secure base to parents Separation distress and secure base to parents All All 4 attachment behaviors to peers only in 15-17 years w/ 15romantic partners 18- year18-82 year-olds (Fraley and Davis, 1997)
Proximity maintenanceProximity maintenance- to friends Safe havenSafe haven- to friends Separation Separation distress and secure base depended on how long in romantic relationships 4 How does an attachment bond develop in adults? adults
PrePre-attachment: Attraction and Flirting (proximity maintenance) Attachment Attachment-in-the-making: Falling in Falling in Love Love (safe haven) ClearClear-cut attachment: Loving (separation distress) GoalGoal-Corrected Partnership: The Postromance Phase (secure base) Safe Safe Close Close contact Inaccessibility insecurity Inaccessibility insecurity Share Share discoveries Play Play with facial features Baby Baby talk Similarities between infant relationships and adult relationships Separation Responses Responses to any separation:
Protest Protest Despair Despair Detachment/Reorganization Detachment/Reorganization 5 Separation
emotions emotions and actions that arise out of an effort to attract the lost person
• “During the weeks following her father’s death, she now told me, she had lived in the half held conviction that the hospital me, she had lived in the half-held conviction that the hospital had had made a mistake in identity and that any day they would call to say he was alive and ready to return home.” Separation, cont’d
Inactivity Inactivity and hopelessness, and sleep disturbances Bowlby originally thought it was to conserve Bowlby originally thought it was to conserve energy energy Hofer Hofer observed that separation in adults was similar to the response in rats, which led him to conclude that there may be coregulation Factors affecting separation responses
Disbelief Disbelief that the loss has occurred Stability Stability of care and the surrounding environment 6 Separation, cont’d
Affected Affected by chances of reunion Detachment- behavior upon reunion (temporary loss) ReorganizationReorganization- moving on with life while keeping the lost figure in mind (permanent loss) Factors Affecting Reorganization Comforting Comforting sense of deceased
Thoughts Thoughts and feelings that are associated with the lost person (healthy) (h Thoughts Thoughts and feelings that make sense only if lost person is physically present (unhealthy) Individual Differences 7 Internal Working Models A set of expectations based on early interactions set that shape thoughts, feelings, and expectations of social relationships later in life Internal Working Models
Working Working models of others
Secure Secure people have learned that negative emotions are communicative, get effective responses from others, see psychological availability in others Insecure (anxiousInsecure (anxious-avoidant and anxious-resistant) people have anxiouslearned that emotions are ineffective at getting responses and th thus thus inhibit or exaggerate emotions, and are unsure about the responsiveness and reliability of others Working Working models of self
Secure Secure people view themselves as being worthy of care. Insecure (anxiousInsecure (anxious-avoidant and anxious-resistant) people have anxiouslow self-worth or are self-reliant selfself- In adults... Hazan Hazan and Shaver (1987) took Ainsworth’s descriptions and translated Ainsworth descriptions and translated them them into paragraphs for adults 8 Hazan and Shaver (1987)
Avoidant: am Avoidant: I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, others want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. Secure: Secure: I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don’t worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. Anxious: find Anxious: I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. Individual Differences in Adult Attachment
“Avoidance” “Avoidance” and “Anxiety” dimensions Avoidance Avoidance
Maintain Maintain an emotional distance from others Would Would I turn to someone if I needed them? Anxiety Anxiety
Desire Desire for closeness coupled with fear of abandonment When When I go to someone, do I have confidence they will be there for me? Adult Attachment
High Avoidance DismissingAvoidant Low Anxiety FearfulAvoidant High Anxiety Secure Preoccupied
27 Low Avoidance 9 Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) Scale
Assesses Assesses Anxiety and Avoidance Dimensions Anxiety Anxiety
“I “I resent it when my partner spends time away it ti from me.” Avoidance Avoidance
“I “I prefer not to show a partner how I feel deep down.” Adult Attachment Styles (In Relationships)
Secure Secure -high trust, high intimacy, low jealousy, offer and seek support, less
likely to be sexually unfaithful, “more sensitive caregivers”, positive emotion Avoidant Avoidant -pessimistic about love, engage in casual sex and drinking, less likely
to provide comfort and seek it, perceived as hostile Anxious Anxious -”neurotic love”, destructive conflict with partners, caregiving is
intrusive, mood swings and jealousy 10 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2009 for the course HD 2610 taught by Professor Mikels,j. during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).
- Fall '07