C PowerPoint Chapter 14

C PowerPoint Chapter 14 - CHAPTER14 The Behavior of Gases...

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CHAPTER 14 The Behavior of Gases
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Properties of Gases Recall from the last chapter that gases can expand to fill their containers, unlike a solid or liquid. Gases are also easily compressed , or squeezed into a smaller volume. Compressibility : The measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure. The Kinetic Theory explains why gases are compressed more easily; because of the space between the particles in a gas. At room temperature, the distance between particles in an enclosed gas is about 10 times the diameter of a particle.
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Properties of Gases Four variables are generally used to describe a gas: Pressure (P) measured in kilopascals. Volume (V) measured in liters. Temperature (T) measured in Kelvins. Number of Moles (n). The amount of gas, volume, and temperature are factors that affect gas pressure.
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Properties of Gases By adding gas to a closed system, you increase the number of particles, which increases the number of collisions, which then in turn, increases the pressure of a gas. Ex: Doubling the number of particles doubles the pressure, tripling the number of particles triples the pressure, etc. If too much gas is added to a closed system, then it can cause the system to rupture. Ex: A balloon, bike tire, etc.
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Properties of Gases If the pressure in a closed system is lower than the outside air pressure, then air will rush into the container when it is opened. Ex: Bags of chips. If the pressure in a closed system is higher than the outside air pressure, the gas will flow out of the container when it is opened. Ex: Aerosol cans. High pressure always goes to low pressure.
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Properties of Gases You can also raise the pressure of a contained gas by reducing its volume. The more it is compressed, the greater the pressure inside the container. Ex: Sitting on a balloon. When the volume of a container is reduced by half, the pressure is doubled. This also has the opposite effect; by increasing the volume of a container, the pressure of the container decreases. Ex: Car engines (piston and cylinder).
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You can also raise the pressure inside of a container by increasing the temperature of the gas. As a gas is heated, the temperature increases and the average kinetic energy of the particles in the gas increases. Faster-moving particles impact the walls of the container with more energy. Doubling the Kelvin temperature doubles the pressure. Ex: This is why you never want to throw an aerosol can into a fire (even if it is empty). The opposite is also true, decreasing the temperature of a gas in a container decreases the pressure. Halving the Kelvin temperature decreases the pressure by
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2009 for the course CH 53130 taught by Professor Mccord during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas.

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C PowerPoint Chapter 14 - CHAPTER14 The Behavior of Gases...

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