Nutrition2 - Nutrition Exam 2 Chapter 4 1 What are the...

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Nutrition - Exam 2 Chapter 4 1. What are the classifications of carbohydrates? Simple & complex a. Simple carbohydrate (sugars) – two types: monosaccharide & disaccharide Monosaccharide C n H 2n O n ; single-ringed carbohydrate; example: glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharide – two monosaccharides paired; example: lactose, sucrose, maltose Sugar alcohol – sugar-like compound, derived from fruits or commercially produced from dextrose; absorbed more slowly than other sugar; example: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, isomalt, lactitol Complex carbohydrate (starches, fibers) – polysaccharide composed of straight or branched chain of monosaccharides; example: glycogen Polysaccharide – compounds composed of many monosaccharides linked together; example: glycogen, starch, fiber Oligosaccharide – intermediate string of 3 to 10 monosaccharides b. General chemical formula of monosaccharide: C n H 2n O n c. Monosaccharides making up disaccharides: sucrose (glucose + fructose), maltose (glucose + glucose), lactose (glucose + galactose); making up polysaccharides: glycogen & starch (glucose units), fibers (variety of monosaccharides) d. Hydrolysis – breakdown of disaccharide with the addition of water (conversion of disaccharide into 2 monosaccharides) Condensation – chemical reaction in which two reactants combine yielding a larger product; releasing water molecule (building of 2 monosaccharides making disaccharide)
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e. Total fiber – the sum of dietary fibers and functional fibers Functional fibers – fibers that have been extracted from plants or manufactured; then added back to foods; beneficial to health Dietary fibers – structural parts of plants; found in all plant-derived foods; moat are polysaccharides; not digested by human enzymes but fermented Soluble fibers – indigestible food components that dissolve in water Insoluble fibers – indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water 2. Where are carbohydrates found? a. Review the exchanges that contribute to our intake: simple carbs, starches, and fibers; know grams of carbohydrate in each exchange Exchanges: 1 starch exchange: 15g of carbohydrate 1 fruit exchange: 15 g of carbohydrate 1 milk exchange: 12g of carbohydrate 1 vegetable exchange: 5g (non-starchy); 15g (starchy) of carbohydrate 1 meat exchange ( only legumes & nuts ): 20g of carbohydrate 1 “other carb” exchange: 15g of carbohydrate b. Soluble fibers: oats, barley, legumes, citrus fruits Insoluble fibers: whole grains (bran), veggies 3. Digestion, absorption and transport of carbohydrates. a. Principle enzymes involved in digestion of carbohydrates: in mouth: amylase hydrolyzes starch to shorter polysaccharides and to disaccharide, maltose; in stomach: amylase is deactivated, but no enzymes to digest carbohydrates, stomach juices to not contain enzymes to break down carbohydrates; small intestine: 1. Pancreatic amylase enters the intestine, breaking down polysaccharides to shorter glucose chains and
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maltose 2. Maltase breaks maltose into glucose molecules 3.
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