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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Twelve The Presidency: Leading the Nation Chapter Outline I. Foundations of the Modern Presidency A. Asserting a Claim to National Leadership B. The Need for Presidential Leadership of an Activist Government 1. Foreign Policy Leadership 2. Domestic Policy Leadership II. Choosing the President A. The Primary Elections B. The National Party Conventions C. The Campaign for Election 1. Election Strategy 2. Media and Money 3. The Winners III. Staffing the Presidency A. Presidential Appointees 1. The Executive Office of the President i. The Vice President ii. The White House Office iii. Policy Experts 2. The Presidents Cabinet 3. Other Presidential Appointees B. The Problem of Control IV. Factors in Presidential Leadership A. The Force of Circumstance B. The Stage of the Presidents Term C. The Nature of the Issue: Foreign or Domestic D. Relations with Congress 1. Seeking Cooperation from Congress 2. Benefiting from Partisan Support in Congress 3. Colliding with Congress E. Public Support 1. Events and Issues 2. The Televised Presidency 3. The Illusion of Presidential Government Chapter Summary The presidency has become a much stronger office than the Framers envisioned. The Constitution grants the president substantial military, diplomatic, legislative, and executive powers, and in each case the presidents authority has increased measurably over the nations history. Underlying this change is the presidents position as the one leader chosen by the whole nation and as the sole head of the executive branch. These features of the office have enabled presidents to claim broad authority in response to the increased demands placed on the federal SG 12 | 1 government by changing world and national conditions. During the course of American history, the presidential selection process has been altered in ways intended to make it more responsive to the preferences of ordinary people. Today, the electorate has a vote not only in the general election, but also in the selection of party nominees. To gain nomination, a presidential hopeful must gain the support of the electorate in state primaries and open caucuses. Once nominated, the candidates receive federal funds for their general election campaigns, which today are based on televised appeals. Although the campaign tends to personalize the presidency, the responsibilities of the modern presidency far exceed any presidents personal capacities. To meet their obligations, presidents have surrounded themselves with large staffs of advisers, policy experts, and managers. These staff members enable the president to extend control over the executive branch while at the same time providing the information necessary for policymaking. All recent presidents have discovered, however, that their control of staff resources is incomplete and that some things others do on their behalf can work against what they are trying to accomplish....
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