Bio_1A_Lecture_19_Immuno_2 - THE IMMUNE SYSTEM (contd) How...

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Unformatted text preview: THE IMMUNE SYSTEM (contd) How do we get long- term protection (immunization)? What is an antibody? How do we have such a wide variety of antibodies? (and receptors) How do Antibodies Protect? What are the consequences of Exaggerations and Failure of the Immune System? Primary immune response to antigen A Secondary immune response to antigen A Primary immune response to antigen B Immunological Memory How do we get long-term protection (IMMUNIZATION)? How do we get long- term protection (IMMUNIZATION)? Requires IL-2 & interaction with activated T H-cells Called Clonal Selection T-dependent antigen Polysaccharides of bacterial surface T-independent antigen What is an antibody? A protein (immunoglobulin), made by plasma cells, that has two very specific and very tight antigen binding sites Variable regions (bivalent) How is that we have so many antibodies (proteins)? theoretically, as many as 10 11 !! Referred to as IgG Hypervariability is a function of recombinational rearrangement How do we have such a wide variety of antibodies? How do Antibodies Protect? Let me count the ways MAC Attack Membrane Attack Complex IgMs are the first Abs made by plasma cells and first to appear in blood stream. Presence of IgM usually indicates a current infection. IgGs are the most abundant Abs in blood & tissue fluids. Also crosses placenta, so can provide passive immunity to fetus. IgAs usually found in bodys secretions, e.g., saliva, milk, even bile.. IgDs are mostly on B cell surfaces serving as antigen receptors IgEs have somewhat longer tail than IgG and attach to mast cells. W hen triggered by antigen, they cause histamine release. Allergic response Passive Immunity -- Three Examples Placental transfer Mothers milk Blood transfusion No memory involved, you simply get whatever was available from the donor Figure 43.10 An overview of the specic immune responses Dendritic Cell Dendritic Cell Figure 43.10 An overview of the specic immune responsesFigure 43....
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Bio_1A_Lecture_19_Immuno_2 - THE IMMUNE SYSTEM (contd) How...

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