Jeporadyesque 1 - Biological
Macromolecules


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Unformatted text preview: Biological
Macromolecules
 This
class
of
biological
macromolecule
forms
a
ring
when
in
solution
 (carbohydrates)
 This
class
of
Biological
macromolecules
are
linked
by
ester
bonds

 This
polymer
has
glycosidic
bonds
between
carbons
1
and
4
and
is
used
for
 structure.
(Cellulose)
 These
are
two
methods
of
denaturing
a
protein.

 This
biological
polymer
can
be
found
in
plants
and
contains
monomers
bound
by
 α1‐4
and
Β1‐6
linkages.
(amylopectin)
 *These
biological
polymers
are
bound
by
a
phosphodiester
bond.
They
contain
 pentose
sugars
and
the
following
nitrogenous
bases
:
Adenine,
Guanosine,
Uracil

 and
cytosine.(RNA)
 
 Cells,
organelles/
Biomembranes
 A
protein
found
in
a
peroxisome
was
synthesized
on
this
type
of
ribosome
(Free)
 This
organelle
contains
proton
pumps
to
maintain
its
acidic
interior
(Lysosome)

 This
type
of
diffusion
moves
molecules
in
the
direction
of
the
gradient
and
exhibits
 hyperbolic
kinetics
(facilitated)
 These
are
three
types
of
post‐translational
modifications
(glycosylation,
 phosphorylation,
cleavage)
 Locations
of
DNA
within
a
photosynthetic
eukaryotic
cell.

 *Name
the
parts
of
the
cell
that
are
in
the
endomembrane
system.
 
 Enzymes/
metabolism
 Enzymes
increase
the
rates
of
a
reaction
by
lowering
this.
(activation
energy)
 According
to
this
model
of
enzyme
substrate
interaction
the
enzyme
does
not
 undergo
any
conformational
change.
(Lock
and
key)
 This
is
the
free
energy
of
the
hydrolysis
of
the
gamma
phosphate
group
from
ATP
 (7.3kcal/mol)
 These
are
5
ways
to
regulate
enzyme
activity
(substrate
conc.,
temperature,
 inhibitors,
pH,
allostery)
 These
are
protein
precursors
that
are
activated
post‐translationally
by
a
protease.
 (Zymogen)

 *You
are
monitoring
an
enzymatic
reaction.
You
add
a
small
molecule
to
your
 reaction.
You
notice
that
it
doubles
the
value
of
the
Michaelis‐Menten
constant.
You
 proceed
to
add
more
substrate
to
the
reaction
mixture
and
find
that
this
does
not
 aide
in
decreasing
the
Km.
What
is
going
on?
(Noncompetitve
inhibiton)
 
 Cellular
respiration
 The
regeneration
of
the
oxidized
form
of
this
molecule
occurs
when
there
is
low
to
 no
oxygen
present
during
cellular
respiration
through
fermentation.
(NAD+)
 The
number
of
net
ATPs
synthesized
if
there
was
an
inhibition
of
ATP
synthase.
(4)
 The
addition
of
these
groups
to
the
six
carbon
sugar
during
glycolysis
destabilize
the
 sugar
so
that
it
can
be
split.
(Phosphate
groups)
 This

ETC
complex
is
the
site
where
Cytochrome
C
is
reduced
by
the
addition
of
 electrons
from
ubiquinone.
(III)
 These
act
by
binding
protons
and
allow
for
the
transfer
of
electrons
but
not
for
the
 synthesis
of
ATP.
(uncouplers)
 This
is
released
before
pyruvate
is
converted
to
acetyl
Co‐A
(Co2)
 *
You
add
chemical
solution
X
to
a
test
tube
of
mitochondria.
You
monitor
the
 oxidation
of
NADH
and
the
synthesis
of
ATP.
You
notice
that
NADH
is
continuing
to
 be
oxidized
but
there
is
a
decrease
in
ATP
synthesis.
What
type
of
chemical
is
in
 solution
X?
How
is
it
affecting
the
ETC?
 
 Photosynthesis
 The
only
product
of
cyclic
electron
flow
in
photosynthesis
(ATP)
 The
sitewhere
light
is
converted
into
chemical
products.
(reaction
center)
 This
molecule
can
be
found
in
all
oxygen
evolving
photosynthetic
organisms
 (Chlorophyll
a)
 These
plants
fix
carbon
at
night
which
goes
through
the
calvin
cycle
during
the
day(
 CAM)
 This
enzyme
allows
for
better
fixation
of
carbon
in
C4
and
CAM
plants.
(Pep
 Carboxylase)
 The
cause
of
photorespiration
(Rubisco
binding
O2)
 You
add
Solution
Z
to
a
test
tube
of
chloroplasts.
You
monitor
the
release
of
O2
and
 ATP
synthesis.
After
the
first
few
minutes
you
notice
that
a
decrease
in
O2
release,
 but
there
is
still
ATP
synthesis.
How
is
solution
Z
affecting
photosynthesis?
What
is
a
 possible
way
that
this
is
occurring?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ...
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