Bio1A handout1 - Bio1A Fall 09 Sections 115 120 121 GSI...

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Bio1A Fall ‘09 Sections 115, 120, 121 GSI: Amiee Ho email: [email protected] Handout #1 Biological Macromolecules Macromolecules Monomer Linkage Polysaccharides Monosaccharides Glycoside Proteins Amino acids Peptide Nucleic acids Nucleotides Phosphodiester Lipids* Glycerol & fatty acids Ester *not present as a polymer General Background Humans are comprised of 70% water and 30% ions, metabolites, macromolecules, etc. (Figure 2) Water is H 2 O o Water is the MOST prevalent biological molecule o Forms hydrogen bonds (one of the weak covalent bonds *refer to table below) o Charged molecules react favorably with water molecules o Two types of interactions ( figure 3 ) 1. Hydrophilic (water loving) molecules interact strongly with water (ex: charged molecules) 2. Hydrophobic (water hating) molecules interact poorly with water (ex: benzene) *Bond Strengths Covalent Bonds (strong) Energy (kcal/mole) O-H 110 H-H 100 C-H 105 Non-Covalent bonds (weak) Hydrogen bonds 5 Ionic bonds 5 Hydrophobic interactions 1-3 Structure of Water (H 2 O): Macromolecules Large, high molecule weight molecules: o Polysaccharides o Proteins o Nucleic acids o Lipids Macromolecules are put together via building blocks of the cell (Figure 4) o Ex: individual amino acids strung together to make proteins Condensation & hydrolysis reactions o Condensation reactions:
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Creates bonds: 2 monomers condense spit out water forms dimmer o Hydrolysis reactions: Breaks bonds: reverse of condensation reaction o These are reversible reactions! o Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids all undergo these reactions in the same fashion PROTEINS Most prevalent biological macromolecule The charge of an amino acid changes as a function of pH There are 20 amino acids found in proteins (more than 20 exist in nature) In general: an amino acid chain that has a molecular weight of 5-10,000 is considered a protein Basic structure of an amino acid ( Figure 7 ): The twenty amino acids can be categorized into different groups based on the “R” group (Figure 8) o R = (+) amino type group (basic) o R = (-) carboxylate group (acidic) o R = polar/uncharged OH group o R = non-polar side chain hydrocarbon side chain (hydrophobic) The carboxylate group reacts with the amino group to form a bond (Condensation reaction) (Figure 9) Forming a bond: Levels of Protein Structure: There are 4 levels of protein structure: o 1. Primary structure
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