Look at the exam reader!!! Go to Mike’s review session. Go to the office hours if you have
questions! (any GSI will do) Watch the web-casts of former review sessions. The Student
Learning Center has tutors for BioA1L.
Some students struggle with Mendelian genetics, DNA gel electrophoresis + generating
restriction maps / making gel predictions, DNA sequencing in the presence of wrong ddNT :
dNTP ratios, the order of mutated genes (yeast complementation) and with all those
calculations (n=m/M, 6.02 x 10
, pH, dilutions…)
Be aware that the notes may contain mistakes!!!
(please tell me if you encounter errors)
Calculate number of molecules (n =m[g]/M[g/mole] then multiply with 6*10
) in a given
volume (Molar means moles per Liter; unit is: [M]).
DNA is double stranded: is the molecule in the question double stranded or single stranded?
(if M is given for one nucleotide you need to adjust to # of nucleotides in the molecule)
probabilities for restriction enzymes to cut @ different A/C/G/T contents and average
fragment size generated
pH = -log[H
] this is mole/liter, You can google Henderson Hasseslbalch for relation
between pH and pKA
multiply probabilities for independent events
Total magnification = magnification of objective X magnification of ocular
Field of view, distance between marks, how do they change with different magnifications?
If the total magnification
by factor X (e.g.; 100x to 400x = multiply by 4) then:
of ruler bars
that fit in the same distance
by that factor (10
bars in 100 micrometer at 100 x; 40 bars in 100 micrometer at 400x)
2. the field of view
by the same factor (e.g.; 2000 micrometer at 100 x = 500
micrometer at 400x
3. the distance between ruler bars
by the same factor (e.g.; 10 micrometer at 100 x
= 2.5 micrometer at 400x)
Depth of field, think 3D, which area is in focus, move object into/out of focus (up/down)
Critical illumination: light intensity + field diaphragm, condenser + position of condenser +
aperture diaphragm. In which order would you adjust those to yield
Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes (nucleus vs nucloid, all have membranes + DNA + ribosomes,
membrane-bound organelles only in eukaryotes, gram-staining (purple =
; red =
(rods, spiral, various cocci), size, cytoplasmic streaming, photosynthesis in cyanobacteria vs
Be able to identify the protists/organisms you looked at!
Know the cladogram! Know the differences in major traits and the corresponding “groups”
found at the top/bottom of the cladogram. Know the times when groups first evolved. What
differentiates one group from another one (cranium, vertebrae, jaws, cartilaginous fishes,
bony fishes, amphibian (+subgroups), reptilian (+subgroups), mammals (+subgroups).