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Lab exam 1 study hints F09

Lab exam 1 study hints F09 - Look at the exam reader Go to...

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Look at the exam reader!!! Go to Mike’s review session. Go to the office hours if you have questions! (any GSI will do) Watch the web-casts of former review sessions. The Student Learning Center has tutors for BioA1L. Some students struggle with Mendelian genetics, DNA gel electrophoresis + generating restriction maps / making gel predictions, DNA sequencing in the presence of wrong ddNT : dNTP ratios, the order of mutated genes (yeast complementation) and with all those calculations (n=m/M, 6.02 x 10 23 , pH, dilutions…) Be aware that the notes may contain mistakes!!! (please tell me if you encounter errors) Math problems: Calculate number of molecules (n =m[g]/M[g/mole] then multiply with 6*10 23 ) in a given volume (Molar means moles per Liter; unit is: [M]). DNA is double stranded: is the molecule in the question double stranded or single stranded? (if M is given for one nucleotide you need to adjust to # of nucleotides in the molecule) probabilities for restriction enzymes to cut @ different A/C/G/T contents and average fragment size generated pH = -log[H + ] this is mole/liter, You can google Henderson Hasseslbalch for relation between pH and pKA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henderson%E2%80%93Hasselbalch_equation) serial dilutions multiply probabilities for independent events Microscope: Total magnification = magnification of objective X magnification of ocular Field of view, distance between marks, how do they change with different magnifications? If the total magnification increases by factor X (e.g.; 100x to 400x = multiply by 4) then: 1. the number of ruler bars that fit in the same distance also increase by that factor (10 bars in 100 micrometer at 100 x; 40 bars in 100 micrometer at 400x) 2. the field of view decreases by the same factor (e.g.; 2000 micrometer at 100 x = 500 micrometer at 400x 3. the distance between ruler bars decreases by the same factor (e.g.; 10 micrometer at 100 x = 2.5 micrometer at 400x) Depth of field, think 3D, which area is in focus, move object into/out of focus (up/down) Critical illumination: light intensity + field diaphragm, condenser + position of condenser + aperture diaphragm. In which order would you adjust those to yield maximal resolution ? Cells Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes (nucleus vs nucloid, all have membranes + DNA + ribosomes, membrane-bound organelles only in eukaryotes, gram-staining (purple = + ; red = - ), shape (rods, spiral, various cocci), size, cytoplasmic streaming, photosynthesis in cyanobacteria vs Nitella? Where? Be able to identify the protists/organisms you looked at! Chordate diversity: Know the cladogram! Know the differences in major traits and the corresponding “groups” found at the top/bottom of the cladogram. Know the times when groups first evolved. What differentiates one group from another one (cranium, vertebrae, jaws, cartilaginous fishes, bony fishes, amphibian (+subgroups), reptilian (+subgroups), mammals (+subgroups).
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Understand the concepts of evolution, classification. Think about the examples we had in
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