Exhibit 1: Cognitive Operators
The participant recalls facts specifically mentioned in the problem.
The participant reads words, phrases, or statements from the problem.
The participant is certain of some knowledge and to use it.
The participant concludes or adopts as a logical consequence from evi-
dence or premises.
The participant examines or judges information specified in the prob-
The participant utters a question, inquiry, or a doubt.
The participant counsels or advises that something be done to solve
The participant searches for information about the problem or the solu-
tion either on paper or in their memory.
Carley, K. M. 1989. “The Value of Cognitive Foundations for Dynamic Social Theory.”
, 14(2-3): 171-208.
Robbins, R.W. and Wallace, W.A. 2007. “Decision Support for Ethical Problem Solving: A Multi
Decision Support Systems
, 43:4, p. 1571.
Methodology: Gilbert, N., & Troitzsch, K. G. 1999.
Simulation for the Social Scientist
Open University Press:
Data Collection: Ericsson, A.K. and Simon, H.A.
. 1983. Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data
. MIT Press:
Problem Solving Activities: Lipshitz, R., and Bar-
Ilan, O. 1996. “How Problems are Solved: Reconsidering the
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
65:1, p. 48.
Cognitive Operators: Fernandez, R, and Simon, H.A. 1999. “A study of how individuals solve complex and ill
, 32:3, p. 225.
Wooldridge, M.J. and Jennings, N.R. 1995. “Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice.” The
Knowledge Engineering Review, 10:2, p. 115.
Social Psychology: Ajzen, I. 1991. “The theory of planned behavior.”
Organizational Behavior and Human Deci-
, 50, p. 179.
Case: Chee, E., and Schneberger, S. 1998.
British Columbia’s Pharmanet Project
. University of Western Ontario.
Richard Ivey School of Business.
Web Application: Robbins, Wallace, and Puka. 2004. Supporting Ethical Problem Solving: An Exploratory Inves-
tigation. ACM SIGMIS CPR 2004.
Exhibit 2: Problem Solving Activities
Context: The participant is “scanning” and understanding the environment. The
participant is realizing that a problem exists. The participant identifies a “high
Structure: The participant is developing a “low level” analysis of the problem from
the “high level” problem that was developed in a context activity. The participant
is determining what is important. The participant is identifying sub-problems, is-
sues, flaws, opportunities, etc. The participant is synthesizing a “high level” solu-
Design: The participant is developing a “low level” solution from the “high level”