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AP BIOLOGY OUTLINE FOR HUMAN SYSTEMS: ANIMALS : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION (EMPHASIS ON VERTEBRATES) OF: TISSUES, ORGANS, AND SYSTEMS; HOMEOSTASIS, IMMUNE RESPONSE. ESSAY QUESTIONS: 1959: The blood, lymph, and other internal fluids have often been referred to as the "internal environment" of the cells. Many parts of the body are involved in maintaining the constancy of this internal environment. Discuss how 1) the kidneys and 2) the endocrine glands help to maintain the constancy of the internal environment. 1961: Describe and compare the excretory system of a flatworm (Platyhelminthes), an earthworm (Annelida), and a grasshopper (Arthropoda). Include labeled diagrams with your answer. 1961: Discuss the structure and function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system of a mammal. What neurohumors are associated with each system? Labeled diagrams may be included with your answer. 1962: a. Compare the digestive system of a planarian with that of an earthworm. b. Compare the body wall of a hydra with that of a tapeworm. c. Compare the circulatory system of a crayfish with that of an earthworm. 1964: a. Make a schematic diagram of a typical myelinated motor neuron. Make the diagram the size of a full page and label it completely. b. List the part included in your diagram and describe briefly the function performed by each one. c. Discuss the mechanism of synaptic transmission. 1964: In normal metabolism, the glucose concentration of the blood tends to remain constant (within a range of 80 to 120 milligrams per hundred milliliters). Discuss the role of each of the following in maintaining this homeostatis condition: a. the kidneys b. the islands of Langerhans c. the pituitary gland 1964: Describe the structure and the mechanism of operation of each of the following: a. a pseudopodium b. a flagellum c. a striated muscle cell 1965: Discuss each of the following as it relates to the functioning of the heartbeat in a mammal: a. the autonomic nervous system
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b. the structure of cardiac muscle c. the sinus node, the auriculoventricular bundle (bundle of His) 1966: Irritability of responsiveness to stimuli is a common characteristic of living organisms. Among many othes these responses include: a. Geotropic responses in plants b. Simple reflex responses in animals Discuss each of these responses. Your answer should include a description of: a. the responses b. an experiments which will demonstrate the responses
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This note was uploaded on 10/30/2009 for the course SI 0126 taught by Professor Gourney during the Summer '09 term at École Normale Supérieure.

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