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AP BIOLOGY OUTLINE: EVOLUTION 1. DARWIN-WALLACE THEORY AND ITS PREDECESSORS 2. MODERN CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SELECTION A. POPULATION GENETICS: HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM AND MUTATION, GENETIC DRIFT, POLYMORPHISM, SELECTION B. SPECIATION 3. ADAPTIVE RADIATION 4. EVOLVED DIVERSITY A. PHYLOGENY OF ANIMALS AND PROTISTS B. PHYLOGENY OF MAJOR PLANT GROUPS C. HOMOLOGY, ANALOGY, CONVERGENCE, PARALLELISM 5. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS: TAXONOMIC SYSTEMS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE ESSAY QUESTIONS: 1959: Discuss how each of the following contributes evidence that evolution has occurred: a. Paleontology b. Geographical distribution c. Biochemical studies 1959: Each group of organisms has a specific set of adaptations (either in the parent animals or in the eggs they produce) which helps to insure the survival of sufficient young to maintain the population. Briefly summarize and compare the structures or other adaptations bearing on this problem as found in an amphibian, a reptile, a marsupial, and a placental mammal. What generalizations can be made from these comparisons? 1960: Although the arthropods began as aquatic animals, the majority have become terrestrial. Discuss the adaptive modifications in the arthropods for terrestrial existence with reference to locomotion, reproduction, and development, respiration, and water balance. 1960: The factors of mutation and isolation are believed to play significant roles in speciation. For each of these factors discuss: a. how it may occur b. the role it plays in speciation 1963: Discuss the evolution of both land animals and land plants from aquatic ancestors with respect to their adaptations for: a. water conservation b. support c. embryo protection
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1964: On the archipelago of the Galapagos Islands, which most geologists believe to be of volcanic origin without ever having had any land connection with the west coast of South America, Darwin discovered a group of small finches. These birds have since been classified into more than a dozen species. These birds have differences, particu- larly in their adaptations for food-getting. It is believed that all these species are descendants of a single species which migrated from the mainland. On the mainland
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