Ch16Themes - the circle, it is incorporated into the...

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Kyra Simon 5/26/08 Three Main Themes of Chapter 16 1) Relationship of Structure to Function The double helix structure of DNA is comprised of four nitrogenous bases, named adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, and allows for storage and copying of information. In the center of the helix, each base projects from one strand to form hydrogen bonds with complementary bases that fit together. Information is contained in order of the bases, and complementary strands contain the same information. Scientists have been able to use phages as research tools to help determine the structure of DNA for many years. These are viruses that infect bacteria and cause the bacteria to produce more phages. Hershey and Chase used radioactive isotopes to label the virus in different places and were able to determine from this experiment that DA directs the production of a virus. The DNA of bacteria is in circular shapes called plasmids, and once something like a virus is inserted into
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Unformatted text preview: the circle, it is incorporated into the genetic code when the bacteria reproduces. Society benefits from this procedure because it allows for research on how to cope with genetic disorders in human beings. This technique is an example of how scientists build on previous research and experiments and push further to discover new things. What started as an experiment done by Griffith to discover bacterial transformation led to Hershey and Chase using bacteriophages to study the role of DNA in overseeing production of new viral particles. 3) Regulation During DNA replication in eukaryotes, DNA molecules use telomeres at their ends that contain multiple repetitions of a short nucleotide sequence. Over many generations of time, the telomeres grow shorter to compensate for the nucleotides used up in replication. Therefore, an enzyme called telomerase is used to catalyze lengthening of telomeres over time and restore those that become unusable....
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