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Unformatted text preview: CONCEPT QUESTION 1992: L. PETERSON/AP BIOLOGY Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. a. Organisms recognize others as members of their own species. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. STANDARDS: 4 POINTS MAXIMUM FOR EACH PART (A - E) a) Organisms recognize others as members of their own species. ___ Definition (1 point) ___ Importance of Species Recognition/Definition of Species/Reproductive Isolation prezygotic (3 points) ___ Mechanisms (2 points) ___ Visual/Auditory/Chemical/Tactile/[Multiple/Ritual/Behavioral] Recognition is Innate or Learned (Imprinting) (1 point) ___ Example (1 point) Visual - birds, fruit flies Auditory - birds, whales, frogs, insects Chemical - moths, voles Tactile - fruit flies, octopods Multiple - albatross, butterflies, fruit flies, people, dove Imprinting - ducks, goats b) Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse ___ Definition (1 point) ___ Neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger Synapse definition ___ Mechanisms (1 point each) Neurotransmitter binds to receptor on postsynaptic membrane Receptor is a protein ___ "Lock and Key" Concept (3 points) Enzymatic recognition and degradation of Neurotransmitter Reabsorption of Neurotransmitter by presynaptic membrane Presynaptic/Postsynaptic Events (1 point for any one) ___ Stimulus (impulse, depolarization, signal, action potential) travels from presynaptic membrane (axon terminus, synaptic knob), Membrane channels opened (calcium channels, ion channels, calcium goes in), Neurotransmitter released from presynaptic neuron (synaptic vesicle) Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse/synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter binding alters permeability Depolarizes and/or hyperpolarizes postsynaptic membrane (creates EPSP[excitatory postsynaptic potential]/creates IPSP-[inhibitory postsynaptic potential]) Change membrane potential (towards or away from threshold) Opening ion channels Alter metabolism inside postsynaptic cell (2nd messenger, cAMP) Reversible binding of Neurotransmitter Examples (1 point) ___ Acetylcholine (ACh) Synapse Types GABA Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Norepinephrine Catecholamines, L-dopa Dopamine and Serotonin - Biogenic Amines Endorphins/Enkephalins - Neuropeptides c) Antigens trigger antigody response ___ Definitions (1 point for either) Antigen (Ag) - foreign substance/non-self...
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