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Chem 101 Book Answers (Ch.3)

Chem 101 Book Answers (Ch.3) - Chapter 3 Atomic Structure 1...

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Chapter 3 Atomic Structure 3-1 1. Write valence electron configurations for each of the following: a) carbon 2s 2 2p 2 b) cobalt 4s 2 3d 7 c) chlorine 3s 2 3p 5 d) magnesium 3s 2 3. Which electron experiences the greater nuclear charge? Explain your reasoning in each case. a) a 5p electron of In or a 5p electron of Sb? Explain. Effective nuclear charge increases with atomic number within a period. Therefore, a 5 p electron of Sb experiences the greater nuclear charge b) a 5 s electron of Sn or a 5p electron of Sn? p orbitals have a nodal plane at the nucleus whereas s orbitals do not. Consequently, p electrons are shielded by s electrons which means that a 5 s electron will experience the greater nuclear charge. 5. Use ionization energies to explain why +4 ions are very rare. The ionization energy increases with each electron that is removed because the effective nuclear charge increases with each removed electron. Thus, removing an electron from a +3 ion to produce a +4 ion requires a substantial amount of energy.
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