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Chem 101 Book Answers (Ch.5)

Chem 101 Book Answers (Ch.5) - Chapter 5 The Covalent Bond...

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Chapter 5 The Covalent Bond 5-1 1. What two opposing forces dictate the bond length? (Why do bonds form and what keeps the bonds from getting any shorter?) The bond length is the distance at which the repulsion of the two nuclei equals the attraction of the valence electrons on one atom and the nucleus of the other. 3. List the following bonds in order of increasing bond length: H-Cl, H-Br, H-O. H-O < H-Cl < H-Br. The order of increasing atom size. 5. Use electronegativities to describe the nature (purely covalent, mostly covalent, polar covalent, or ionic) of the following bonds. a) P-Cl Δχ = 3.0 – 2.1 = 0.9 polar covalent b) K-O Δχ = 3.5 – 0.8 = 2.7 ionic c) N-H Δχ = 3.0 – 2.1 = 0.9 polar covalent d) Tl-Br Δχ = 2.8 – 1.7 = 1.1 polar covalent 7. Name the following compounds: a) S 2 Cl 2 disulfur dichloride b) CCl 4 carbon tetrachloride c) PCl 5 phosphorus pentachloride d) HCl hydrogen chloride 9. Write formulas for each of the following compounds: a) dinitrogen tetroxide N 2 O 4 b) nitrogen monoxide NO c) dinitrogen pentoxide N 2 O 5 11. Consider the U-V, W-X, and Y-Z bonds. The valence orbital diagrams for the orbitals involved in the bonds are shown in the margin. Use an arrow to show the direction of the bond dipole in the polar bonds or indicate “not polar” for the nonpolar bond(s). Rank the bonds in order of increasing polarity. The bond dipole points toward the more electronegative atom in the bond, which is the atom with the lower energy orbital. The magnitude of the dipole increases as the electronegativity difference (orbital energy difference) increases. The W-X bond is not polar because the orbital energies of W and X are identical, and the Y-Z bond in more polar than the U-V bond because the energy separation of the bonding orbitals is greater. W-X < U - V < Y - Z 13. Use an arrow to indicate the bond dipole direction in each of the following bonds: a) S-O b) C-H c) O-H d) C-O Note the C-H bond is essentially nonpolar.
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