Chem 101 Book Answers (Ch.12)

Chem 101 Book Answers (Ch.12) - Chapter 12 Acid-Base...

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Chapter 12 Acid-Base Chemistry 12-1 1. Distinguish between an Arrhenius, a Brønsted, and a Lewis acid. An Arrhenius acid is any compound that contains an H and produces H 1+ ions in solution. A Brønsted acid is a proton donor, and a Lewis acid is a substance that can share electrons with a Lewis base to form a covalent bond. 3. What is a salt? A salt is a product of an acid-base reaction. It consists of a cation derived from the base and the anion derived from the acid. KCl is a salt that is formed from the reaction of KOH and HCl. 5. Use curved arrows to show the mechanisms of the following Lewis acid-base reactions. Identify the Lewis acid and the Lewis base. What is the hybridization of the boron before and after reaction (a)? What is the hybridization of the carbons before and after reaction b? a) BF 3 + NH 3 F 3 B-NH 3 N H H H B F F F N H H H F B FF sp 2 B sp 3 B b) CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 O C O H OH O C O O H H O C O O H H H O H H 2 CO 3 O C O O H H 1 2 ; 1. The Lewis base (H 2 O) attacks the Lewis acid (CO 2 ). 2. A proton transfer from the oxygen with positive formal charge to the oxygen with negative formal charge is mediated by the solvent (H 2 O) in the second step to produce carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3 . 7. Use potential energy diagram in the text for the following the acid-base reaction: HA + B U A 1- + HB 1+ a) Which is the stronger acid, HA or HB 1+ ? The reaction is exothermic, so the formed bond is stronger than the broken bond. Thus, HA has the weaker bond and is the stronger acid. b) Which is the stronger base, A 1- or B? HB is the stronger bond, which makes B the stronger base. c) What is the magnitude of the equilibrium constant for the reaction (K > 1 or K < 1)? The reaction is exothermic which means that K > 1 so long as entropy effects can be ignored. d) Draw a probable transition state (see Section 9.7 for a review of transition states). The transition state must have an H-A bond and an H-B bond if it can be reached from either side. The transition state: A-H-B 9. What is the conjugate base of each of the following: Remove one proton to form conjugate base.
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This note was uploaded on 10/30/2009 for the course CH Ch101 taught by Professor Bigham during the Fall '08 term at N.C. State.

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Chem 101 Book Answers (Ch.12) - Chapter 12 Acid-Base...

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