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Chp2 - Chapter 2 Quantum Theory Wave/Particle Duality of...

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Chapter 2: Quantum Theory Wave/Particle Duality of Light Interactions with Light Wave Nature of Matter Quantum Theory Quantum Numbers and Orbitals Electron Configuration Periodic Trends
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Light – Wavelike Behavior Much of what we understand about atoms is based on their interactions with light Frequency ( ν ) = # waves/sec (s -1 or Hz) Wavelength ( λ ) = distance between 2 adjacent maxima (m) λ m m
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Long Wavelength Low Frequency LOW ENERGY Short Wavelength High Frequency HIGH ENERGY c =  λ ν c is the speed of light (m/s) λ is wavelength (m) ν is frequency (s -1 or Hz) Wavelength and Frequency The speed of light ( c ) allows us to determine λ from ν OR ν from λ c = 3.00 x 108 ms-1
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Light – Particle Behavior Max Planck (1900) – proposed that energy was quantized (finite amount) E = h ν h = 6.63x10 -34 J•s Einstein (1905) – applied quantum theory to explain the photoelectric effect
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Photoelectric Effect Energy (photons) is transferred to an electron in the metal; must overcome threshold energy
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Einstein and Planck 1) Light made of photons; E = h ν 1) More intense light has more photons (E = nh ν ) 1) Different ν of light have different effect on matter 1) When light interacts with matter, it does so one photon at a time; E of reaction dictated by E = h ν , rate (how fast) of reaction dictated by # of photons (n)
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Electromagnetic Spectrum Continuous spectrum Different ν of light have different effect on matter ( μ wave, IR, UV-Vis, NMR, X-ray )
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Line Spectrum Johannes Rydberg – determined mathematical expression to define ν as seen in the line spectrum ν = R H 1 1 n n R H = 3.29x10 15 s -1 2 lo 2 hi - Could now determine energy of photon using E = h ν
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Bohr Model Electrons “orbit” the nucleus in quantized radii
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