Chp12 - Chapter 12 Acid-Base Chemistry Definition of...

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Chapter 12 Acid-Base Chemistry Definition of Acid/Base Acid/Base Strength Acid Dissociation (K a ) pH and pK a
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Arrhenius acids: substances that produce H + ions in solution HCl H + + Cl - HClO 2 H + + ClO 2 - Arrhenius bases: substances that produce OH - ions in solution NaOH Na + + OH - NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - Arrhenius Definition
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Lewis acid: electron acceptor; empty orbital that can overlap with Lewis base Lewis bases: electron donor; contains a lone pair Lewis Definition H Ag C O O Al Cl Cl Cl C O H 3 C OCH 3 N H H H H S O O O N H H H F O H CH 3 H S
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Formation of a covalent bond between a Lewis acid and a Lewis base Curved arrow indicates lone pair becomes covalent bond Metals that lie low and to the right on periodic table , low Z eff Lewis Acid-Base Reaction Cl Al Cl Cl Cl Cl Al Cl Cl Cl 1- Ag Cl Ag Cl
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Brønsted Definition Brønsted acid : proton (H + ) donor; generates H + in water Brønsted base: proton acceptor; same as a Lewis base Strong acids dissociate completely in water: Weak acids partially dissociate: HCl (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + + Cl - C O H 3 C O H C O H 3 C O + H 2 O + H 3 O +
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