Chp13 - Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbons...

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Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbons Nomenclature Isomers Polymers Other Applications
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Dealing with carbon based molecules (C-H, C-O, C-N bonds Alkanes (single), alkenes (double), alkynes (triple) Biological materials, plastics, drugs, dyes/textiles, etc. Organic Chemistry
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H C H H H Lewis structure (2-D) METH ane CH 4 H C H H H Wedge & dash (3-D) Alkanes Carbon is sp 3 hybridized Carbon has FOUR bonds Tetrahedral molecular geometry
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H C C H H H H C H H H Lewis structure C 3 H 8 Condensed structure H 3 C CH 2 CH 3 Skeletal structure 1 2 3 C C C H H H H H H H H Wedge & dash (3-D) Alkanes (longer chains) PROP ane
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C C C C C C C C C H 2 H 3 H 3 C 3 H 8 C 6 H 14 C C C C C C H 3 H 3 H 3 H 3 C C C H H Skeletal Structures
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Octane rating refers to ratio of iso-octane to heptane in the gasoline mixture (87 octane is 87% iso-octane and 11% heptane) Higher octane rating reduces “knocking” in engines Alkanes and Octane Rating n-heptane iso-octane
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Condensed structure C 2 H 4 C C H H H H Skeletal structure ETH ene Alkenes Carbon is sp 2 hybridized Carbon has THREE bonds Trigonal planar molecular geometry H 2 C CH 2
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Chp13 - Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbons...

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