04Fundamentals - Lecture 4 - Fundamentals September 9, 2002...

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Lecture 4 - Fundamentals Lecture 4 - Fundamentals September 9, 2002 CVEN 444
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Lecture Goals Lecture Goals Loading (continued) Concrete Mixing and Proportioning Concrete Properties Steel Reinforcement
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Earthquake Loads Earthquake Loads Inertia forces caused by earthquake motion F = m * a Distribution of forces can be found using equivalent static force procedure (code, not allowed for every building) or using dynamic analysis procedures
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Earthquake Loads Earthquake Loads Inertia forces caused by earthquake motion. Equivalent Static Force Procedure for example, in ASCE 7-95: V = C s * W where V = Total lateral base shear C s = Seismic response coefficient W = Total dead load
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Earthquake Loads Earthquake Loads Total Dead Load, W: 1.0 * Dead Load + 0.25 * Storage Loads + larger of partition loads or 10 psf + Weight of permanent equipment + contents of vessels + 20% or more of snow load
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Earthquake Loads Earthquake Loads where C v = Seismic coefficient based on soil profile and A v C a = Seismic coefficient based on soil profiled and A a R = Response modification factor (ability to deform in inelastic range) T = Fundamental period of the structure R C and T R C of smaller C a v s 5 . 2 2 . 1 3 / 2 =
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Earthquake Loads Earthquake Loads where T = Fundamental period of the structure T = C T h n 3/4 where C T = 0.030 for MRF of concrete 0.020 for other concrete buildings. h n = Building height R C and T R C of smaller C a v s 5 . 2 2 . 1 3 / 2 =
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Earthquake Map Earthquake Map
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Roof Loads Roof Loads Ponding of rainwater Roof must be able to support all rainwater that could accumulate in an area if primary drains were blocked. Ponding Failure: Rain water ponds in area of maximum deflection increases deflection allows more accumulation of water cycle continues… potential failure
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Roof Loads Roof Loads Roof loads are in addition to snow loads Minimum loads for workers and construction materials during erection and repair
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Construction Loads Construction Loads Construction materials Weight of formwork supporting weight of fresh concrete
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Concrete Mixing and Proportioning Concrete Mixing and Proportioning Concrete : Composite material composed of portland cement, fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate (gravel/stone), and water; with or without other additives. Hydration : Chemical process in which the cement powder reacts with water and then sets and hardens into a solid mass, bonding the aggregates together
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Concrete Mixing and Proportioning Concrete Mixing and Proportioning Heat of Hydration : Heat is released during the hydration process. In large concrete masses heat is dissipated slowly temperature rises and volume expansion later cooling causes contraction. Use special measures to control cracking.
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Concrete Mixing and Proportioning Concrete Mixing and Proportioning 1. Proportioning : Goal is to achieve mix with Adequate strength Proper workability for placement
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04Fundamentals - Lecture 4 - Fundamentals September 9, 2002...

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