Lecture notes

Lecture notes - Lecture 1 Nourish: to satisfy the need of...

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Lecture 1 Nourish : to satisfy the need of the body in order to function, grow, stay healthy. Nutrients : something that nourishes body that helps body to function, grow. I. Known nutrients a. Macronutrients- capable of providing energy i. Carbohydrates ii. Protein iii. Lipids iv. fats b. Micronutrients – consumed in relatively small amount, does not produce energy but need the function of micronutrients in order to make use of macronutrients i. Vitamins ii. Minerals c. Water II. Suspected nutrients a. Phytochemicals- chemicals found in plants (phyto = plants) that may have some effects on our body. i. Caffeine (from coffee bean) ii. Ginko biloba iii. Ginseng b. Probiotics foods or supplements that contain and provide beneficial bacteria or yeasts. c. Prebiotics chemicals that promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.
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III. Unknown nutrients Variety = protein can be obtained from beans or meat. Balance = diet that restriction the intake of carbohydrates. Moderation = serving size (Exercise) calorie – amount of energy required to raise temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 ° C Calorie – kilocalorie – amount of energy required to raise temperature of 1000 gram of water by 1 ° C Digestion Digestion: process of breaking foods down into smaller units. Both physical (cutting, chopping food) and biochemical. Absorption: transfer/movements of nutrients into cells GI tract (single tube from mouth to anus) I. Mouth II. Esophagus III. Stomach highly muscular, not tubular, many glands, extremely acidic IV. Small intestine – duodenum (10 inch) - Jejunum (4 ft) - Iteum (5 ft) V. Large intestine VI. Rectum and anus Sphinctors – a value or muscular ring found in various intersection of GI tract. Accessory organs (aids the process of digestion) – liver
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- Pancreas (gallbladder and bile duct (storage))
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Lecture 11 Lipid Dietary lipid – directly absorbed from intestine through lacteal and lymphatic pathway, always packaged as chylomicrons. Vldl short and medium chain fatty acid Protein 28:30 Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) Protein and energy can be linked in odd ways. Protein is made of chains of amino acids known as polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary structures. 20 amino acids total. High quality or complete protein – proteins that have as close to the full complement of essential AA as possible. Food that contain all 20 AA are classified as high quality protein. Most animal proteins are complete/high quality. ** source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all the essential amino acids for the dietary needs of humans or other animals. Incomplete protein – does not contain all AA. Biological value – there is a very good conversion of dietary protein into biological protein. Biological protein = any protein in any part of body (enzyme, hormone, muscle, etc.). The rate at
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Lecture notes - Lecture 1 Nourish: to satisfy the need of...

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