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Unformatted text preview: C HAPTERS 8 AND 9 Covalent Bonding and Molecular Structures 155 Objectives You will be able to: 1. Write a description of the formation of the covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms to form a hydrogen molecule. Your description should include mention of overlapping atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals. It should also include rough pictures of the atomic orbitals and the molecular orbitals. 2. Write a description of the assumptions made in the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) approximation for the molecular orbital approach to covalent bonding. 3. Write an explanation for why bonding molecular orbitals are more stable and why antibonding molecular orbitals are less stable than the separate atomic orbitals that form them. 4. Write a description of how the σ 1 s , σ * 1 s , σ 2 s , σ * 2 s , σ 2 p , σ * 2 p , π * 2 p , and π * 2 p are formed from the 1 s , 2 s and 2 p atomic orbitals. 5. Draw sketches of the σ 1 s , σ * 1 s , σ 2 p , σ * 2 p , π 2 p , and π * 2 p molecular orbitals. 6. Write an explanation for why the σ 2 p molecular orbital of O 2 is lower energy than the π 2 p molecular orbitals and why the σ * 2 p is higher energy than the π * 2 p . 7. Draw molecular orbital diagrams for H 2 , O 2 , F 2 , and Ne 2 . 8. From a molecular orbital diagram of a molecule, predict its bond order. 9. From a molecular orbital diagram for a molecule, predict whether it is paramagnetic or diamagnetic. 10. Draw the molecular orbital diagrams for CO and NO and use them to predict the bond order of each and to explain why each is relatively stable despite their strange Lewis Structures. 11. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of scienti¡c models. 12. Write a list of the basic assumptions of the valence-bond model of covalent bonding. 13. Write or identify the number of valence electrons for each of the Representative elements. 14. With reference to the valence bond model, describe how the covalent bond forms between ﬂuorine atoms in F 2 . 15. Write or identify a description of the information given in a Lewis structure. 16. With reference to the valence bond model, describe how the covalent bond forms between hydrogen atoms in H 2 . 17. Explain how the carbon atom in CH 4 is able to form four equivalent covalent bonds to hydrogen atoms with bond angles of 109.5 ° . 18. Describe (1) how sp 3 hybrid orbitals form, (2) their shapes, and (3) how they are arranged in space. 19. Write or identify a description of the tetrahedral electron group geometry. 156 Chapter 8 & 9 Covalent Bonding and Molecular Structures 20. For ethene (ethylene) molecules, C 2 H 4 : (1) explain how the carbon atoms are able to form four equivalent covalent bonds to hydrogen atoms, (2) explain why all the bond angles are about 120 ° , (3) with reference to the valence bond model, explain how the double bond between carbon atoms forms, and (4) explain why one bond in the double bond is weaker than the other....
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